International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

Authors of this Paper

External Links

online first only

A pilot study for the pyrolysis of the urea formaldehyde-melamine formaldehyde resin paper waste

Producing pyrolytic oil via pyrolysis reaction from waste papers containing melamine formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde, which have an economic and environmental value, is the base of this study. In this study gas, liquid and solid products were gained via pyrolysis, and liquid products are put into perspective from the point of energy. In this pilot study, positive results were obtained for comprehensive further experiments, and it's seen that the results may have meaningful value on sectoral basis with regards to reducing environmental damages of the wastes and energy producing.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-11-26
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2019-01-15
  1. Goyal, H.B., Seal, D; Saxseno, R.C. Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12 (2008), pp. 504-517
  2. Pranjali D. M., Henkel, C., Abdollahi K. K., Marculescu C., Boldor D. A, Critical comparison of pyrolysis of cellulose, lignin, and pine sawdust using an induction heating reactor. Energy Conversion and Management , 117 (2016), pp. 273-280
  3. Üçgül, İ., Akgül, G., Biyokütle teknolojisi, Yekarum Dergi, 1 (2010), pp. 3-11
  4. Skodras, G., Grammelis, P., Basinas, P., Kakaras, E., Sakellaropoulos, G., Pyrolysis combustion characteristics of biomass and waste-derived feedstock. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45 (2006), pp. 3791-3799
  5. Shen, D. K., Gu, S. The mechanism for thermal decomposition of cellulose and its main products. Bioresource Technology, 100 (2009), pp. 6496-6504
  6. Probstein, R. F., Hicks, R. E., Synthetic Fuels. Mc Graw-Hill Book Company: New York, 1982
  7. Girods, P., Dufour, A., Rogaume, Y., Rogaume, C., Zoulalian A., Thermal removal of nitrogen species from wood waste containing urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde resins. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 159 (2008), pp. 210-221
  8. Al Shra'ah, A., Helleur, R., Microwave pyrolysis of cellulose at low temperature. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis,105 (2014), pp. 91-99
  9. Li. S. J., Mu, J., Zhang, Y., Influence of urea formaldehyde resin on pyrolysis of biomass: a modeling study by tg-ftır. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 34 (2014) , 6, pp. 1497 - 1501
  10. Bridgwater, A. V., Cottom, L.M., Costs and Opportunities for Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Production and Upgrading. In Biomass for Energy, Industry and Environment, 6th E.C. Conference; Grassi, G.; Collina A.; Zibetta H., Eds; Elsevier Applied Science: London and New York, 1992, pp. 679-692
  11. Girods, P., Dufour, A., Rogaume, Y., Rogaume, C., Zoulalian A., Pyrolysis of wood waste containing urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 81 (2008), pp. 113-120
  12. Girods, P., Rogaume, Y., Dufour, A., Rogaume, C., Zoulalian A., Low-Temperature pyrolysis of wood waste containing urea-formaldehyde resin. Renewable Energy, 33 (2008), pp. 648-654
  13. Girods, P., Dufour, A., Rogaume, Y., Rogaume, C., Zoulalian A., Comparison of gasification and pyrolysis of thermal pre-treated wood board waste. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 85 (2009), pp. 171-183
  14. Impregnated Paper , /tr/emprenyeli-kagit.
  15. Bridgwater, A. V., Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading. Biomass and Bio Energy, 38 (2012), pp. 68-94
  16. Li, Z. et, all., Design and operation of a down-tube reactor demonstration plant for biomass fast pyrolysis. Fuel Processing Technology, 161 (2017), pp. 182-192
  17. Bridgwater A. V., The production of biofuels and renewable chemicals by fast pyrolysis of biomass. Int. J. Global Energy Issues, 27 (2007), 2, pp. 160-203
  18. Daugaard D.E., Brown, R.C., Enthalpy for pyrolysis for several types of biomass, Energy&Fuels, 17 (2003), 4, pp. 934-939
  19. Bardalai M., Mahanta, D., A review of physical properties of biomass pyrolysis oil, International Journal Of Renewable Energy Research, 5 (2015), pp. 277-286
  20. Ingram, L. D., Mohan, D. M., Bricka, M. P., Steele, P.D., Strobel, D., Crocker, D., et al. Pyrolysis of wood and bark in an auger reactor: physical properties and chemical analysis of the produced bio-oils, Energy&Fuels, 22 (2008), pp. 614-625
  21. Vispute T., Pyrolysis oils: characterization, stability analysis, and catalytic upgrading to fuels and chemicals. Ph. D. Thesis. University of Massachusetts. Chemical Engineering Dep. Massachusetts. 2011.
  22. Volpe, R., Menendez J. M. B., Reina, T. R., Messineo, A., Millan, M., Evolution of chars during slow pyrolysis of citrus waste. Fuel Processing Technology, 158 (2017), pp. 255-263
  23. Johari, K., Saman, N., Song, S. T., Cheu S. C., Kong, H., Mat, H., Development of coconut pith chars towards high elemental mercury adsorption performance Effect of pyrolysis temperatures. Chemosphere, 156 (2016), pp. 56-68
  24. Wilk, M., Magdziarz, A., Kalemba I., Gara, P., Carbonisation of wood residue into charcoal during low temperature process. Renewable Energy, 85 (2016), pp. 507-513.
  25. Park, J., Lee,Y., Ryu, C., Park, Y. K., Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields. Bioresource Technology, 155 (2014), pp. 63-70
  26. Ciolkosz, D., Wallace, R., A review of torrefaction for bioenergy feedstock production. Biofpr, 5 (2011), 3, pp. 317-329.
  27. Van der Stelt, M. J. C., Gerhauser, H., Kiel, J. H. A., Ptasinski, K. J., Biomass Upgrading By Torrefaction For The Production Of Biofuels: A Review. BioMass and BioEnergy, 35 (2011), pp. 3748-3762
  28. Wang, S., Dai, G., Ru, B., Zhao, Y., Wang, X., Xiao, G., Luo, Z. Influence of torrefaction on the characteristics and pyrolysis behavior of cellulose. Energy, 120 (2017), pp. 864-871
  29. Solar, J., de Marco, I., Caballero, B.M., Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A., Rodriguez, N., Agirre, I., et al. Influence of temperature and residence time in the pyrolysis of woody biomass waste ın a continuous screw reactor. Biomass and Bioenergy, 95 (2016), pp. 416-423
  30. Ningboa, G., Baolinga, L., Aimina, L., Juanjuan L., Continuous pyrolysis of pine sawdust at different pyrolysis temperatures and solid residence times. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 114 (2015), pp. 155-162
  31. Morgan, T. J., Turn, S. Q., George, A., Fast Pyrolysis Behavior of Banagrass as a Function of Temperature and Volatiles Residence Time in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. Plos One, 10 (2015), 8, pp. 1-28.
  32. Haiping, Y., Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. Fuel, 86 (2016), pp. 1781-1788
  33. Myers, G. E., Koutsky, J. A., Formaldehyde Liberation and Cure Behavior of Urea-Formaldehyde Resins. Holzforschung, 44 (1990), 2, pp. 117-126
  34. Ullah, S., Bustam, M. A., Nadeem, M., Naz, M. Y., Tan, W. L., Shariff, A. M., Synthesis and Thermal Degradation Studies of Melamine Formaldehyde Resins. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Scientific World Journal. 2014, pp. 1-6
  35. Yu, H., Zhang, Z., Li, Z., Chen, D., Characteristics of tar formation during cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin gasification. Fuel, 118 (2014), pp. 250-256
  36. Balat, M., Balat, M., Kırtay, E., Balat, H., Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 1: Pyrolysis systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 50 (2009), pp. 3147-3157.
  37. Morris, M. A., Production of bio-oils via catalytic pyrolysis. In Handbook of Biofuels Production Processes and Technologies. Luque, R., Campelo, J., Clark, J., Eds.; Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, 1 (2011), pp 349-389
  38. Yaman, S., Pyrolysis of Biomass to Produce Fuels and Chemical Feedstocks. Energy Conversion and Management, 45 (2004), pp. 651-671.
  39. Wilk, M., Magdziarz, A., Kalemba, I., Gara, P., Carbonisation of wood residue into charcoal during low temperature process. Renewable Energy, 85 (2016), pp. 507-513
  40. Bermudez, J. M., Fidalgo, B., Production of bio-syngas and bio-hydrogen via gasification. In Handbook of Biofuels Production. Luque, R., Ki Lin, C. S., Wilson, K., Clark, J. Eds., Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, 2 (2016), pp 431-494
  41. Ling, C. T., San, H. P., Kyin, E. H., Hua, L. S., Chen, L. W., Yee, C. Y., Yield and Calorific Value of Bio Oil Pyrolysed from Oil Palm Biomass and its Relation with Solid Residence Time and Process Temperature. Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 8 (2015), 3, pp. 351-358
  42. Lehto, J., Oasmaa, A., Solantausta, Y., Kytö, M., Chiaramonti, D., Review of Fuel Oil Quality and Combustion of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Applied Energy, 116 (2014), pp. 178-190
  43. Bridgwater, A. V., Biomass Fast Pyrolysis. Thermal Science, 8 (2004), 2, pp. 21 - 49
  44. Wongkhorsub, C., Chindaprasert, N., A Comparison of the Use of Pyrolysis Oils in Diesel Engine. Energy and Power Engineering, 5 (2013), pp. 350-355
  45. Torres, A., de Marco, I., Caballero, B. M., Laresgoiti, M. F., Legarreta, J. A., et al. Recycling by pyrolysis of thermoset composites: characteristics of the liquid and gaseous fuels obtained. Fuel, 79 (2000), pp. 897-902
  46. Raveendran, K., Ganesh, A., Heating value of biomass and biomass pyrolysis products. Fuel, 75 (1996), 15, pp. 1715-1720
  47. Demirbaş, A., Determination Of Calorific Values Of Bio-Chars And Pyro-Oils From Pyrolysis Of Beech Trunkbarks. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 72 (2004), pp. 215-219.
  48. Feng, Y., Mu, J., Chen, S., Huang, Z., Zhiming Yu., The Influence of Urea Formaldehyde Resins on Pyrolysis Characteristics and Products of Wood-Based Panels. Bioresources, 7 (2012), 4, pp. 4600 - 4613.
  49. Zhdanova, A. O., Kuznetsov, G. V., Legros, J. C.,Strizhak, P. A., Thermal Conditions For Stopping Pyrolysis Of Forest Combustible Material And Applications To Firefighting. Thermal Science, 21 (2017), 6A, pp. 2565 - 2577