THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

Authors of this Paper

External Links

online first only

The effect of H2 purity on the combustion, performance, emissions and energy costs in an SI engine

ABSTRACT
This paper aims to examine the effect of hydrogen purity on the combustion, performance, NOx emissions and energy costs in a spark ignition (SI) engine. In accordance with this purpose, two commercial hydrogen gases of different purity (i.e. 99.998 % and 99.995 %), were used as fuel in an SI engine. The engine was operated under a lean mixture (ϕ = 0.6) and wide-open throttle conditions (WOT) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 rpm engine speeds. It was found that high purity hydrogen improves engine performance parameters (i.e. indicated power, torque, thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption) in the range of 2.4 -1.9 % depending on engine speed. The combustion duration and the cyclic variations were also decrease when the engine is operated with high purity hydrogen. However, NOx emissions increase depending on engine speed in the range of 3.4 - 2.9 % when high purity hydrogen is used as a fuel. In addition, energy costs with high purity H2 increase in the range of 5.9-6.5 % depending on engine speed.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2018-07-05
PAPER REVISED: 2018-10-26
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-11-13
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2018-12-16
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI180705315G
REFERENCES
  1. Alazemi, J. and Andrews, J. Automotive hydrogen fueling stations: An international review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015;48:483-499.
  2. Ganesh, R.H., Subramanian, V., Balasubramanian, V., Mallikarjuna, J.M., Ramesh, A., and Sharma, R.P. Hydrogen fueled spark ignition engine with electronically controlled manifold injection: An experimental study. Renewable Energy 2008;33(6):1324-1333.
  3. Verhelst, S., Verstraeten S. and Sierens. R. A Comprehensive Overview of Hydrogen Engine Design Features. J. Automobile 2005;221(8):911-920.
  4. Balat, M. Potential importance of hydrogen as a future solution to environmental and transportation problems. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2008;33(15):4013-4029.
  5. Korakiznitis, T., Namasivayam, A.M. and Crookes R.J. Natural-gas fueled spark ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2011; 37:89-112.
  6. Sakintunaa, B., Lamari-Darkrimb, F. and Hirscherc M. Metal hydride materials for solid hydrogen storage: A review. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2007;32(9) 1121-1140.
  7. Ghazal, O.H. Performance and combustion characteristic of CI engine fueled with hydrogen enriched diesel. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2013;38(35):15469-15476.
  8. Sakthınathan, G.P. and Jeyachandran, K. Theoretical and experimental validation of hydrogen fueled spark ignition engine. Thermal Science 2010;14(4): 989-1000.
  9. Ji, C., Wang, S. and Zhang B. Effect of spark timing on the performance of a hybrid hydrogen-gasoline engine at lean conditions. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2010;35(5):2203-2212.
  10. Salvi, B.L. and Subramanian, K.A. Sustainable development of road transportation sector using hydrogen energy system, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015;51:1132-1155.
  11. White, C.M., Steeper, R.R. and Lutz, A.E. The hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine: A technical review. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2006;31(10):1292-1305.
  12. Ma, F., Wang, Y., Liu, H., Li, Y., Wang, J. and Ding, S. Effects of hydrogen addition on cycle-by-cycle variations in a lean burn natural gas spark-ignition engine. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(2):823-831.
  13. Shivaprasad, K.V., Raviteja, S., Chitragar, P. and Kumar G.N. Experimental Investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on combustion performance and emissions characteristics of a spark ignition high speed gasoline engine. Procedia Technology 2014;14:141-148.
  14. Ceper, B.A., Akansu, S.O., Kahraman, N. Investigation of cylinder pressure for H2/CH4 mixtures at different loads. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2009;34(11): 4855-4861.
  15. Antunes, J.M.G., Mikalsen, R. and Roskilly, A.P. An investigation of hydrogen-fuelled HCCI engine performance and operation. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2008;33(20):5823-5828.
  16. Suwanchotchoung, N. Performance of a Spark Ignition Dual-fuelled Engine Using Split Injection Timing (Ph.D. thesis), Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, USA, 2003.
  17. Yi, H.S., Min, K. and Kim, E.S. The optimized mixture formation for hydrogen fuelled engines. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2000;25(7):685-690.
  18. Cipriani, G., Dio, V.D., Genduso, F., Cascia, D.L., Liga, R., and Miceli, R. Perspective on hydrogen energy carrier and its automotive applications. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2014;39(16): 8482-8494.
  19. Verhelst, S. Recent progress in the use of hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines. Int. J Hydrogen Energy 2014;39(2):1071-1085.
  20. Alazemi J., and Andrews J. Automotive hydrogen fuelling stations: an international review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015;48:483-499.
  21. Steinberg, M. and Cheng, H.C. Modern and prospective Technologies for hydrogen production from fossil fuels. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1989;14(11):797-803.
  22. Gambini, M. and Vellini, M. Comparative analysis of H2/O2 cycle power plants based on different hydrogen production systems from fossil fuels. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 2005;30(6): 593-604.
  23. Matekunas, F. Modes and measures of cyclic combustion variability. 1983; SAE Technical Paper 830337.
  24. Gürbüz, H., Akçay, İ.H., and Buran, D., An investigation on effect of in-cylinder swirl flow on performance, combustion and cyclic variations in hydrogen fuelled spark ignition engine, Journal of the Energy Institute, 87(1),1-10, 2014.
  25. Heywood, J.B. Internal combustion engine fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, London, U.K, 1988.
  26. Shafizadeh, F., Chin, P., and Degroot, W. Effective heat content of green forest fuels. For. Sci. 1977;23(1): 81-89
  27. Kang, K.Y. and Reitz, R.D., The effect of intake valve alignment on swirl generation in a DI diesel engine, Exp. Therm. Fluids Sci. 1999;20(2):94-103.
  28. Syred, N. A review of oscillation mechanisms and the role of the PVC in swirl combustion systems, Prog. Energy Combust Sci. 2006;32(2):93-161.