THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

The study of effects of greenery on temperature reduction in urban areas

ABSTRACT
Urban landscape is largely characterized by high degree of built space, high share of artificial surface material and the reduction of green areas, which leads to changes in the microclimate and the deterioration of thermal comfort in outdoor urban space. One of the most important roles of urban greenery is the impact on the reduction of air temperature due to less heating of green space compared to paved surfaces and due to tree shading. The paper analyses the influence of urban greenery on temperature reduction. Aim of the study was to measure the difference in warming up of grassy surfaces and paving materials commonly used for public areas and to evaluate the impact of tree shading on the surface cooling during the day. For this purpose, measuring of surface temperatures was performed during the summer months in 2015 in the central city zone of the city of Niš. The measuring included: grass, asphalt as most commonly used paving material, and concrete tiles commonly used for pedestrian areas. Results show the temperature of grass is significantly lower than the temperature of paved surface at any time of day. In the case of paved surfaces, temperature of shaded or partially shaded material is lower than the temperature of surface exposed to sunlight during the whole day, a temperature difference exists even after nocturnal cooling. The results indicate the importance of green areas for cooling of urban spaces, due to their lower warming and surface shading from tree canopy.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2017-05-30
PAPER REVISED: 2017-12-27
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-02-08
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2018-04-28
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI170530122D
REFERENCES
  1. Hardoy, J.E., et al., Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World, Earthscan Publications Ltd, New York, USA, 2001
  2. Svensson, M.K., Eliasson, I., Diurnal air temperatures in built-up areas in relation to urban planning, Lanscape and Urban Planning, 61(2002), 1, pp. 37-54
  3. Stafoggia, M., et al., Does Temperature Modify the Association between Air Pollution and Mortality? A Multicity Case-Crossover Analysis in Italy, American Journal of Epidemiology, 167 (2008), 12, pp. 1476-85
  4. Lafortezza, L., et al., Benefits and wellbeing perceived by people visiting green spaces in periods of heat stress, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 8 (2009), pp. 97-108
  5. Taheri-Shahraiyni, H., Sodoudi, S., High-resolution air temperature mapping in urban areas: A review on different modelling techniques. Thermal Science, (00), pp. 94-94.
  6. Akbari, H.,et al., Cooling Our Communities: A Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Colored Surfacing, Report LBL-31587, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy Analysis, Climate Change Division, Washington, D.C., 1992
  7. Akbari, H., et al., Measured savings in air conditioning from shade trees and white surfaces, in: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 1992, pp.9.1-9.10
  8. Rahn, K., et al., The Contribution of Pavements to Urban Heat Islands, Proceedings, 51st ASC Annual International Conference, Alabama, 2015 ascpro0.ascweb.org/archives/cd/2015/paper/CPRT324002015.pdf
  9. Pomerantz, M., et al., The Effect of Pavements' Temperatures on Air Temperatures in Large Cities, LBNL Report-43442, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2000
  10. Asaeda, T., et al., Heat storage of pavement and its effect on the lower atmosphere, Atmospheric Environment, 30 (1996), 3, pp. 413-27
  11. Choi, Y.Y., et al., Assessment of Surface Urban Heat Islands over Three Megacities in East Asia Using Land Surface Temperature Data Retrieved from COMS, Remote Sensing, 6 (2014), pp. 5852-67
  12. Santamouris, M., Heat Island Research in Europe: State of the Art, Advances in Building Enenrgy Research, I (2007), 1, pp.123-50.
  13. Babic, S., et al., Analysis of pavement surface heating in urban areas, Građevinar, 64 (2012), 2, pp.125-132
  14. Vogt, J.A., Oke, T.R., Thermal remote sensing of urban climate, Remote Sensing of Environment, 86 (2003), pp.370-84.
  15. Taha, H., et al., Heat islands and oasis effects of vegetative canopies: Microclimatical field measurements, Applied Climatology, 44 (1991), pp.123-34
  16. European Environment Agency, Green infrastructure and territorial cohesion, The concept of green infrastructure and its integration into policies using monitoring systems, Technical Report No. 18/2011, www.eea.europa.eu/publications/green-infrastructure-and-territorial-cohesion
  17. Hudeková, Z., Assessing vulnerability to climate change and adapting through green infrastructure, GRaBS Expert Paper 7, Town and Country Planning Association and European Union, London, UK, 2011
  18. Alavipanah, S. et al., The Role of Vegetation in Mitigating Urban Land Surface Temperatures: A Case Study of Munich, Germany during theWarm Season, Sustainability, 7 (2015) pp. 4689-706
  19. Akbari, H., et al., Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas, Solar Energy, 70 (2001), 3, pp. 295-310
  20. Chen, L., Ng. E., Outdoor thermal comfort and outdoor activities: A review of research in the past decade, Cities 29 (2012), 2, pp. 118-125
  21. Cortesão, J. et al., Retrofitting public spaces for thermal comfort and sustainability, Indoor and Built Environment 25, (2016), 7, pp. 1085-1095
  22. Djukic A., et al., Comfort of Open Public Spaces: Case Study New Belgrade, Proceedings (Vanista Lazarevic, E., Vukmirovic M., Krstic-Furundzic, A., Djukic A.), Places and Techologies: Keeping up with Technologies to Improve Places, Belgrade, Serbia, 2015, pp. 62-79
  23. Heat-More urban green keeps the city cooler, Atelier Groenblauw, www.urbangreenbluegrids.com/heat/#heading-2
  24. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies-Cool Pavements, US Environmental Protection Agency, www2.epa.gov/heat-islands/reducing-urban-heat-islands-compendium-strategies
  25. Oke, T.R., Boundary layer climates, Routledge, London, UK, 1987
  26. Emmanuel, M.R., An urban approach to climate-sensitive design: Strategies for the tropics, Spon Press, Oxfordshire, 2005
  27. Doick, K., Hutchings, T., Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure, Forestry Commission, www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/FCRN012.pdf/$FILE/FCRN012.pdf
  28. Honjo, T., Takakura, T., Simulation of thermal effects of urban green areas on their surrounding areas, Energy and Buildings 15 (1990-91), pp. 443-446
  29. Kántor, N., Unger, J., Benefits and opportunities of adopting GIS in thermal comfort studies in resting places: an urban park as an example, Landscape and Urban Planning 98, (2010), pp. 36-46
  30. Nikolopoulou, M., Lykoudis, S., Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: analysis across different European countries, Building and Environment 41, (2006), 11, pp. 1455-1470
  31. Hart, M., Sailor, D.J. Assessing causes in spatial variability in urban heat island magnitude, Proceedings, Seventh Symposium on the Urban Environment , San Diego, California, USA, 2007
  32. Noro, M., Lazzarin, R., Urban heat island in Padua, Italy: Simulation analysis and mitigation strategies, Urban Climate, 14 (2015), 2, pp. 187-196