THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

External Links

online first only

Effects of ethanol addition on soot particles dynamic evolution in ethylene/air laminar premixed flame

ABSTRACT
This work focuses on the effects of ethanol addition on soot particle size distributions functions (PSDF) in ethylene/air premixed flame. The mixed ethanol/ethylene chemical reaction mechanism was used to calculate the concentrations of gaseous components in the premixed flame. A Monte-Carlo stochastic method was used to solve the particles dynamical model, which including particle inception, coagulation and surface reaction. PSDF in different heights of the flame were obtained with different amounts of ethanol added into ethylene. Three different equivalence ratios (1.78, 2.01 and 2.34) and four different blend ratios of ethanol/ethylene (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were investigated. The simulated results showed that mole concentrations of some important oxidant species, i.e. OH, H and O, were enhanced by ethanol addition. Thus, the soot and soot precursor's formation, such as C2H2, PAHs, etc., were restricted owing to the increasing oxidation reaction with ethanol addition. Meanwhile, large particles were reduced when ethanol blended to the ethylene at the same height of the flame.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2017-05-24
PAPER REVISED: 2017-07-04
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2017-07-16
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2017-08-05
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI170524171W
REFERENCES
  1. Xiao, H.L., Zeng, P.F., Zhao, L.R., Li, Z.Z., Fu, X.W., An experimental study of the combusition and emission performances of 2,5-dimethylfuran diesel blends on a diesel engine, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), 1, pp. 543-553.
  2. Abbasi, T., Abassi, S. A., Biomass energy and the environmental impacts associated with its production and utilization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14 (2010), 3, pp. 919-937.
  3. Altun, S., Oztop, H.F., Oner, C., Varol, Y., Exhaust emissions of methanol and ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine, Thermal Science, 17 (2013), 1, pp. 291-297.
  4. Costa, R.C., Sodre, J.R., Hydrous ethanol vs. gasoline-ethanol blend: engine performance and emissions, Fuel, 31 (2010), 2, pp. 287-293.
  5. Kim, H., Choi, B., The effect of biodiesel and bioethanol blended diesel fuel on nanoparticles and exhaust emissions from CRDI diesel engine, Renewable Energy, 35 (2010), 1, pp. 157-163.
  6. Sughayyer, M., Effects of fossil diesel and biodiesel blends on the performances and emissions of agricultural tractor engines, Thermal Science, 17 (2016), 1, pp. 263-278.
  7. Lapuerta, M., Armas, O., Herreros, J.M., Emissions from a diesel-bioethanol blend in an automotive diesel engine, Fuel, 87(2008), 1, pp. 25-31.
  8. Chen, H., Shuai, S.J., Wang, J.X., Study on combustion characteristics and PM emission of diesel engines using ester-ethanol-diesel blended fuels, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31 (2007), 2, pp. 2981-2989.
  9. Frenklach, M., Yuan, T., Ramachandra, M. K., Shock-tube and modeling study of soot formation in mixtures of hydrocarbons, Proceeding of Shock Tubes and Waves, 32 (1987), 3, pp. 467-473.
  10. Alexiou, A., Williams, A., Soot formation in shock-tube pyrolysis of toluene, toluene-methanol, tolueneethanol, and toluene-oxygen mix-tures, Combustion and flame, 104 (1996), 1-2, pp. 51-65.
  11. Wu, J., Song, K. H., Litzinger, T., Lee, S. Y., Santoro, R., Linevsky, M., Colket, M., Liscinsky, D., Reduction of PAH and soot in premixed ethylene-air flames by addition of ethanol, Combustion and flame,144 (2006), 4, pp. 675-687.
  12. Salamanca M., Sirignano,M ., Commodo,M ., Minutolo,P., D'Anna ,A., The effect of ethanol on the particle size distributions in ethylene premixed flames, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 43 (2012), 43, pp. 71-75.
  13. Gong, J., Zhang Y.,J., Tang, C.L., Huang, Z.H., Emission characteristics of iso-propanol/gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine combined with exhaust gas re-circulation, Thermal Science, 18 (2014), 1, pp. 269-277.
  14. Franck, U., Herbarth, O., Röder, S., Schlink, U., Borte, M., Diez, U., Krämer, U., Lehmann, I., Respiratory effects of indoor particles in young children are size dependent, Science of the Total Environment ,409 (2011), 9, pp. 1621-1631.
  15. Camacho, J., Lieb, S., Wang, H., Evolution of size distribution of nascent soot in n- and i-butanol flames, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 34 (2013), 1, pp. 1853-1860.
  16. Sgro, L.A., Basile, G., Barone, A.C., D'Anna, A., Minutolo, P., Borghese, A., D'Alessio, A., Detection of combustion formed nanoparticles, Chemosphere 51 (2003), 10, pp. 1079-1090.
  17. Frenklach, M., Method of moments with interpolative closure, Chemical Engineering Science, 57 (2002), 12, pp. 2229-2239.
  18. Appel, J., Bockhorn, H., Frenklach, M., Kinetic Modeling of Soot Formation with Detailed Chemistry and Physics: Laminar Premixed Flames of C2 Hydrocarbons, Combustion and flame 121 (2000), 1-2, pp. 122-136.
  19. Frenklach, M.,Wang, H., Detailed mechanism and modeling of soot particle formation// Soot Formation in Combustion, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.
  20. Kee, R.J., Rupley, F.M., Miller, J.A., Chemkin-II: a fortran chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics. Sandia National Laboratories; 1991. Report SAND87e8215.
  21. Revzan, K., Brown, N. J., Frenklach, M., Unpublished, Available from: www.me.berkeley.edu/soot/codes/codes.html
  22. Mauss, F., Trilken, B., Breitbach, H., Peters, N., in: H. Bockhorn (Ed.), Soot Formation in Combustion Mechanisms and Models, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 325-349.
  23. Gerasimov, I. E., Knyazkov, D. A., Yakimov, S. A., Bolshova, T. A., Shmakov, A. G., Korobeinichev, O. P., Structure of atmospheric-pressure fuel-rich premixed ethylene flame with and without ethanol, Combustion and flame 189 (2012), 5, pp. 1840-1850.
  24. Marinov, N.M., A detailed chemical kinetic model for high temperature ethanol oxydation, International Journal of Chemical Kinetics, 31 (1999), 3, pp. 183-220.
  25. Balthasara, M., Frenklach, M., Monte-Carlo simulation of soot particle coagulation and aggregation: the effect of a realistic size distribution, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 30 (2005), 1, pp. 1467-1476.
  26. Balthasar, M., Kraft, M., A stochastic approach to calculate the particle size distribution function of soot particles in laminar premixed flames, Combustion and flame 133 (2003), 3, pp. 289-298.
  27. Computational Modeling Group, Sweep, como.cheng.cam.ac.uk/index.php?Page=Resources&Section=Software.
  28. Abid, A. D., Heinz, N., Tolmachoff, E. D., Phares, D. J., Campbell, C. S., Wang, H., On evolution of particle size distribution functions of incipient soot in premixed ethylene-oxygen-argon flames, Combustion and Flame, 154 (2008), 4, pp. 775-788
  29. Salenbauch, S., Cuoci, A., Frassoldati, A., Saggese, C., Faravelli, T., Hasse, C., Modeling soot formation in premixed flames using an Extended Conditional Quadrature Method of Moments, Combustion and Flame, 162 (2015), 6, pp. 2529-2543
  30. Raj, A., Prada, I.D.C., Amer, A.A., Chung, S.H., A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Combustion and Flame, 159 (2012), 2, pp.500-515.
  31. Slavinskaya, N.A., Riedel, U., Dworkin, S.B., Thomson, M.J., Detailed numerical modeling of PAH formation and growth in non-premixed ethylene and ethane flames, Combustion and Flame, 159 (2012), pp. 979-995.
  32. Song, K. H., Nag, P., Litzinger, T. A., Haworth, D. C., Effects of oxygenated additives on aromatic species in fuel-rich, premixed ethane combustion: a modeling study, Combustion and flame 135 (2003), 3, pp. 341-349.