International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

External Links

online first only

A comprehensive study on the effect of emulsification, solid nano additive and LPG dual fuel operation on engine behaviour of a WCO based compression ignition engine

The influence of emulsification, solid nano additive and LPG dual fuel operation on engine's performance, emission and combustion behaviour of a waste cooking oil (WCO) of sunflower oil based compression ignition engine was studied experimentally. Initially test engine was operated in single fuel mode with neat diesel (ND) and neat waste cooking oil (NWCO) as fuels at various loading conditions. In the second phase WCO was converted in to its emulsion (WCO-EM) and tested in the engine. The WCO emulsion was further modified into solid nano additive emulsion (WCO-NF-EM) and tested. Finally the engine was modified to operate in dual fuel mode and tested with LPG as the inducted fuel with WCO-NF-EM as pilot fuel. NWCO resulted in inferior engine operation with higher smoke, HC and CO emissions as compared to ND all power outputs. Significant improvement in BTE was noted with all the methods attempted. Dual fuel operation with WCO-NF-EM - LPG showed highest BTE which is very close to diesel value. Smoke and NOx emissions were considerably reduced with all the methods. Dual fuel mode with LPG induction showed the lowest smoke emission which was still lower than diesel value. WCOEM and WCO-NF-EM further reduced the HC and CO emissions at all power outputs. It is concluded that the WCO can be effectively used in diesel engines by converting into its solid nano additive emulsion in the unmodified engine. Combining dual fuel operation with WCO-NF-EM- LPG could achieve the engine operation similar to diesel.
PAPER REVISED: 2017-04-10
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2017-04-20
  1. Knežević, D.M., et al., The Characteristics of Combustion Process of Diesel engine using vegetable oil methyl esters. Thermal Science, 19 (2015), 6, pp. 2255-2263
  2. Tomic, M. D., et al., Effects of Fossil Diesel and Biodiesel Blends on the performances and emissions of agricultural tractor engines. Thermal Science, 17 (2013), 1, pp. 263-278.
  3. Hemanandh. J, et al., Emission and Performance analysis of hydro treated refined sunflower oil as alternate fuel. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 54 (2015), 3, pp.389-393
  4. Monirul. I.M. et al., Influence of poly (methyl acrylate) additive on cold flow properties of coconut biodiesel blends and exhaust gas emissions. Ren. Energy, 101 (2017), pp. 702-712
  5. Alessandro Corsini et al., Pollutant Emissions in Common-rail Diesel Engines in Extra urban Cycle: Rapeseed Oils vs Diesel Fuel. Energy Procedia, 82 (2015), pp.141-148.
  6. Marcelino Aurélio et al., Comparative study of NOx emissions of biodiesel-diesel blends from soybean, palm and waste frying oils using methyl and ethyl transesterification routes. Fuel, 194 (2017), 15, pp. 144-156.
  7. Alessandro Corsini et al., Performance Analysis of a Common-rail Diesel Engine Fuelled with Different Blends of Waste Cooking oil and Gasoil. Energy Procedia, 101 (2016), pp. 606-613.
  8. Joonsik Hwang et al., Application of waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel in a compression ignition engine. Fuel, 176 (2016), 15, pp. 20-31.
  9. Lei Qu et al., Influence of waste cooking oil biodiesel on oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of particulate matter from diesel engine. Fuel, 181 (2016),1, pp.389-395
  10. Senthil Kumar. M., et al., A comprehensive study on performance, emission and combustion behavior of a compression ignition engine fuelled with WCO (waste cooking oil) emulsion as fuel,. Journal of the Energy Institute, 87 (2014), pp. 1-9.
  11. Plaban Bora et al., Formulation of micro emulsion based hybrid biofuel from waste cooking oil - A comparative study with biodiesel. Journal of the Energy Institute, 89 (2016), pp. 560-568.
  12. Vishal Saxena et al., A comprehensive review on combustion and stability aspects of metal nanoparticles and its additive effect on diesel and biodiesel fuelled C.I. engine, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 70 (2017), pp. 563-588.
  13. Mehrdad Mirzajanzadeh et al., A novel soluble nano-catalysts in diesel-biodiesel fuel blends to improve diesel engines performance and reduce exhaust emissions. Fuel, 139 (2015), pp. 374-382
  14. Vijayakumar Chandrasekaran., The role of nano additives for biodiesel and diesel blended transportation fuels. Transportation Research, Part D 46 (2016), pp. 145-156.
  15. Jamuwa, D.K., et al., Experimental investigation of performance, exhaust emission and combustion parameters of stationary compression ignition engine using ethanol fumigation in dual fuel mode. Energy Conversion and Management, 115 (2016), pp.221-231.
  16. Lata D.B., et al., Theoretical and experimental investigations on the performance of dual fuel diesel engine with hydrogen and LPG as secondary fuels. International journal of hydrogen energy. 35 (2010), pp. 11918 -11931
  17. Kapilan N., et al., Combustion And Emission Characteristics Of A Dual Fuel Engine Operated With Mahua Oil And Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Thermal Science, 12 (2008),1, pp. 115-123
  18. Tira. H.S. et al. Characteristics of LPG-diesel dual fuelled engine operated with rapeseed methylester and gas-to-liquid diesel fuels. Energy, 47 (2012), pp. 620-629.
  19. Kumaraswamy. A., et al., Performance Analysis of a Dual Fuel Engine Using LPG and Diesel with EGR system, Procedia Engineering 38 (2012 ) 2784 - 2792.
  20. Vijayabalan, P., et al., Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a CI engine using liquid petroleum gas and neem oil in dual fuel mode. Thermal Science, 14 (2010), 4, pp. 923-935.