International Scientific Journal

External Links


Due to increasing global energy demand and the fact that a major source of the required energy is generated from fossil fuels, the combustion process has turned into a topic of interest in converting fossil fuels to energy. An ideal combustion system is one that can combine high engine efficiency with low fuel consumption and low emissions. Increasing humidity is a technique used by researchers for influencing the combustion process. The present study aims to review previously conducted researches in this regard. Based on viewpoints of these researches, the reviewed studies were categorized into four groups: the case studies used, the methodology applied, the design guidelines considered, and the performance parameters studied. It can be concluded from the reviewed articles that NOx reduction is the most significant advantage of increasing humidity in the combustion process, and has led to the widespread use of this method. The other studied emissions either remained constant or their respective increases were negligible.
PAPER REVISED: 2019-11-09
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2019-11-14
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2021, VOLUME 25, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [1625 - 1652]
  1. Lefebvre, A. H., Ballal, D. R., Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., USA, 2010
  2. Ommi, F., Investigation of the Eefects of Steam Addition on the Conceptual Design and Pollutants Emission of the Gas Turbine Combustor, Modares Mechanical Engineering, 18 (2018), 6, pp. 85-96
  3. Saboohi, Z., et al., Multi-Objective Optimization Approach Toward Conceptual Design of Gas Turbine Combustor, Applied Thermal Engineering, 148 (2019), Feb., pp. 1210-1223
  4. Xue, R., et al., Effect of Steam Addition on Gas Turbine Combustor Design and Performance, Applied Thermal Engineering, 104 (2016), July, pp. 249-257
  5. Dodds, W., Engine and Aircraft Technologies to Reduce Emissions, Proceedings, UC Technology Transfer Symposium, San Diego, Cal., USA, 2002
  6. Burrus, D., et al., Energy Efficient Engine Component Development and Integration: Single-Annular Combustor Technology Report, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, O., USA, 1980, p. 118
  7. Burrus, D., et al., Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Combustion System Component Technology Performance Report,, 1984
  8. Palmer, J., The TURBOMATCH Scheme for Gas Turbine, Cranfield University: Unpublished TURBOMATCH Manual, 2011
  9. Vassilios, A. P., Gas Turbine Performance Simulation, Lecture Notes, September, 2011 (Unpublished),
  10. Novelo, D. A. B., et al., Experimental Investigation of Gas Turbine Compressor Water Injection for NOx Emission Reductions, Energy, 176 (2019), June, pp. 235-248
  11. Bhargava, R., et al., Gas Turbine Fogging Technology: A State-of-the-Art Review - Part II: Overspray Fogging - Analytical and Experimental Aspects, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 129 (2007), 2, pp. 454-460
  12. Chaker, M., Mee, T. R. Design Consideration of Fogging and Wet Compression Systems as Function of Gas Turbine Inlet Duct Configurations, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, Montreal, Canada, 2015
  13. Savic, S., et al., Spray Interaction and Droplet Coalescence in Turbulent Air-Flow, An Experimental Study with Application Gas Turbine High Fogging, Zaragoza, 9 (2002), Sept., pp. 1-6
  14. ***, ASME, Gas Turbine Inlet Air-Conditioning Equipment - Appendix a Method of Testing Atomizing Nozzles PTC 51, 2011, p. 132
  15. ***, Malvern Instruments, Spraytec, Ltd., Malvern, man0368 Issue 3.0, Worcestershire, UK Ltd., 2007
  16. Mazas, A., et al., Effects of Water Vapor Addition on the Laminar Burning Velocity of Methane Oxygen- Enhanced Flames at Atmospheric Pressure, Combustion and Flame, 158 (2011), 12, pp. 2428-2440
  17. Mazas, A., et al., Effects of Water Vapor Addition on the Laminar Burning Velocity of Oxygen-Enriched Methane Flames, Combustion and Flame, 158 (2011), 12, pp. 2428-2440
  18. Donohoe, N., et al., Influence of Steam Dilution on the Ignition of Hydrogen, Syngas and Natural Gas Blends at Elevated Pressures, Combustion and Flame, 162 (2015), 4, pp. 1126-1135
  19. Brett, L., et al., Simulation of Methane Autoignition in a Rapid Compression Machine with Creviced Pistons, Combustion and Flame, 124 (2001), 1-2, pp. 326-329
  20. Gallagher, S., et al., A Rapid Compression Machine Study of the Oxidation of Propane in the Negative Temperature Coefficient Regime, Combustion and Flame, 153 (2008), 1-2, pp. 316-333
  21. Aul, C. J., et al., Ignition and Kinetic Modelling of Methane and Ethane Fuel Blends with Oxygen: A Design of Experiments Approach, Combustion and Flame, 160 (2013), 7, pp. 1153-1167
  22. Zhang, S.-J., et al., Performance Analysis of a Partial Oxidation Steam Injected Gas Turbine Cycle, Applied Thermal Engineering, 91 (2015), Dec., pp. 622-629
  23. Horlock, J. H., Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles: A Brief Review of Power Generation Thermodynamics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2013
  24. Smith, L., et al., The Gas Turbine Handbook, The NETL, Morgantown, W. Va., USA, 2006
  25. Kays, W. M., London, A. L., Compact Heat Exchangers, Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Fla., USA, 1984
  26. Benini, E., et al., Reduction of NO Emissions in a Turbojet Combustor by Direct Water/Steam Injection: Numerical and Experimental Assessment, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29 (2009), 17-18, pp. 3506-3510
  27. Raithby, G., Equations of Motion for Reacting, Particle-Laden Flows, Progress Report, Thermal Science Ltd., 1991
  28. Benini, E., Giacometti, S., Design, Manufacturing and Operation of a Small Turbojet-Engine for Research Purposes, Applied Energy, 84 (2007), 11, pp. 1102-1116
  29. Lee, M. C., et al., Experimental Study on the Effect of N2, CO2, and Steam Dilution on the Combustion Performance of H2 and CO Synthetic Gas in an Industrial Gas Turbine, Fuel, 102 (2012), Dec., pp. 431-438
  30. Kokkulunk, G., et al., Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Diesel Engine with Steam Injection System on Performance and Emission Parameters, Applied Thermal Engineering, 54 (2013), 1, pp. 161-170
  31. Tesfa, B., et al., Water Injection Effects on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Operating with Biodiesel, Renewable Energy, 37 (2012), 1, pp. 333-344
  32. Mello, J., Mellor, A., The NOx Emissions from Direct Injection Diesel Engines with Water/Steam Dilution, SAE Transactions, Technical paper, 1999-01-0836, 1999
  33. Gonca, G., Investigation of the Influences of Steam Injection on the Equilibrium Combustion Products and Thermodynamic Properties of Bio Fuels (biodiesels and alcohols), Fuel, 144 (2015), Mar., pp. 244-258
  34. Parlak, A., et al., New Method to Reduce NOx Emissions of Diesel Engines: Electronically Controlled Steam Injection System, Journal of the Energy Institute, 85 (2012), 3, pp. 135-139
  35. Gonca, G., et al., The Effects of Steam Injection on the Performance and Emission Parameters of a Miller Cycle Diesel Engine, Energy, 78 (2014), Dec., pp. 266-275
  36. Gonca, G., et al., Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Miller Cycle Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emission Parameters, Applied Energy, 138 (2015), Jan., pp. 11-20
  37. Mohapatra, D., et al., Effect of Steam Injection and FeCl3 as Fuel Additive on Performance of Thermal Barrier Coated Diesel Engine, Sustainable Environment Research, 28 (2018), 5, pp. 247-255
  38. Zhao, R., et al., Comparative Study on Different Water/Steam Injection Lay-Outs for Fuel RReduction in a Turbocompound Diesel Engine, Energy Conversion and Management, 171 (2018), Sept., pp. 1487-1501
  39. Boretti, A., Water Injection in Directly Injected Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines, Applied Thermal Engineering, 52 (2013), 1, pp. 62-68
  40. Bozza, F., et al., Potentials of Cooled EGR and Water Injection for Knock Resistance and Fuel Consumption Improvements of Gasoline Engines, Applied Energy, 169 (2016), May, pp. 112-125
  41. Adnan, R., et al., Performance and Emission Analysis of Hydrogen Fueled Compression Ignition Engine with Variable Water Injection Timing, Energy, 43 (2012), 1, pp. 416-426
  42. Wu, Z.-J., et al., A High Efficiency Oxyfuel Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Direct Injection for Waste Heat Recovery, Energy, 70 (2014), June, pp. 110-120
  43. Wu, Z.-J., et al., Experimental Study of the Effect of Water Injection on the Cycle Performance of an Internal-Combustion Rankine Cycle Engine, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers - Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 228 (2014), 5, pp. 580-588
  44. Hoppe, F., et al., Water Injection for Gasoline Engines: Potentials, Challenges, and Solutions, International Journal of Engine Research, 17 (2016), 1, pp. 86-96
  45. Zhu, S., et al., Thermodynamic and Experimental Researches on Matching Strategies of the pre-Turbine Steam Injection and the Miller Cycle Applied on a Turbocharged Diesel Engine, Energy, 140 (2017), Part 1, pp. 488-505
  46. Zhu, S., et al., Thermodynamic Analysis of an in-Cylinder Waste Heat Recovery System for Internal Combustion Engines, Energy, 67 (2014), Apr., pp. 548-556
  47. Zhao, R., et al., Numerical Study on Steam Injection in a Turbocompound Eiesel engine for Waste Heat Recovery, Applied Energy, 185 (2017), Part 1, pp. 506-518
  48. Gonca, G., Investigation of the Effects of Steam Injection on Performance and NO Emissions of a Diesel Engine Running with Ethanol - Diesel Blend, Energy Conversion and Management, 77 (2014), Jan., pp. 450-457
  49. Araki, H., et al., Experimental and Analytical Study on the Operation Characteristics of the AHAT System, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 134 (2012), 5, 051701
  50. Daggett, D. L., Hendricks, R. C., Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx, NASA Report CR-2004-212957, 2004
  51. Geiselhart, K. A., et al., Blended Wing Body Systems Studies: Boundary-Layer Ingestion Inlets with Active Flow Control, NASA Report CR-2003-212670, 2003
  52. Balepin, V., et al., The NOx Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets through Water Injection, Proceedings, 38th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Indianapolis, Ind., USA, 2002, p. 3623
  53. De Paepe, W., et al., Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Steam Dilution on the Combustion of Methane for Humidified Micro Gas Turbine Applications, Combustion Tcience and Technology, 188 (2016), 8, pp. 1199-1219
  54. Morley, C., Gaseq: A Chemical Equilibrium Program for Windows, Ver. 0.79, 2005
  55. Cuoci, A., et al., OpenSMOKE++: An Object-Oriented Framework for the Numerical Modelling of Reactive Systems with Detailed Kinetic Mechanisms, Computer Physics Communications, 192 (2015), July, pp. 237-264
  56. Smith, G., et al., GRI Mech 3.0
  57. Sayad, P., et al., Experimental Investigations of the Lean Blowout Limit of Different Syngas Mixtures in an Atmospheric, Premixed, Variable-Swirl Burner, Energy and Fuels, 27 (2013), 5, pp. 2783-2793
  58. Lim, J., A Study of the Effects of Preheat and Steam Addition on the Flame Structure and NO Formation in Laminar Counterflow Flames, Ph D. thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., USA, 2000
  59. Mathioudakis, K., Evaluation of Steam and Water Injection Effects on Gas Turbine Operation Using Explicit Analytical Relations, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers - Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 216 (2002), 6, pp. 419-431
  60. Esfahani, I .J., Yoo, C., Feasibility Study and Performance Assessment for the Integration of a Steam-Injected Gas Turbine and Thermal Desalination System, Desalination, 332 (2014), 1, pp. 18-32
  61. Bouam, A., et al., Gas Turbine Performances Improvement Using Steam Injection in the Combustion Chamber under Sahara Conditions, Oil and Gas Science and Technology - Revue de l'IFP, 63 (2008), 2, pp. 251-261
  62. Kim, K. H., Effects of Water and Steam Injection on Thermodynamic Performance of Gas-Turbine Systems, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 110 (2012), Oct., pp. 2109-2116
  63. Touchton, G., Influence of Gas Turbine Combustor Design and Operating Parameters on Effectiveness of NOx Suppression by Injected Steam or Water, Proceedings, Joint Power Generation Conference, GT Papers, Toronto, Canada, 1984, pp. V001T02A003-V001T02A003
  64. Kruger, O., et al., Large Eddy Simulations of Hydrogen Oxidation at Ultra-Wet Conditions in a Model Gas Turbine Combustor Applying Detailed Chemistry, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 135 (2013), 2, 021501
  65. Farokhipour, A., et al., A Numerical Study of NOx Reduction by Water Spray Injection in Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers, Fuel, 212 (2018), Jan., pp. 173-186
  66. Hirsch, C., Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows: The Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2007
  67. Amani, E., Nobari, M., A Calibrated Evaporation Model for the Numerical Study of Evaporation Delay in Liquid Fuel Sprays, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 56 (2013), 1-2, pp. 45-58
  68. Amani, E., Nobari, M., Systematic Tuning of Dispersion Models for Simulation of Evaporating Sprays, International Journal of Multi-Phase Flow, 48 (2013), Jan., pp. 11-31
  69. Menter, F. R., et al., A Correlation-Based Transition Model Using Local Variables - Part I: Model Formulation, Journal of Turbomachinery, 128 (2006), 3, pp. 413-422
  70. Torkzadeh, M., et al., An Investigation of Air-Swirl Design Criteria for Gas Turbine Combustors through a Multi-Objective CFD Optimization, Fuel, 186 (2016), Dec., pp. 734-749
  71. Lu, T., Law, C. K., A Criterion Based on Computational Singular Perturbation for the Identification of Quasi Steady-State Species: A Reduced Mechanism for Methane Oxidation with NO Chemistry, Combustion and Flame, 154 (2008), 4, pp. 761-774
  72. WC Jr, G., Gas-Phase Combustion Chemistry, Springer Science and Business Media, New York, USA, 1999
  73. Malte, P., Pratt, D., Measurement of Atomic Oxygen and Nitrogen Oxides in Jet-Stirred Combustion, Symposium (International) on Combustion, 15 (1975), 1, pp. 1061-1070
  74. Bowman, C., Chemistry of Gaseous Pollutant Formation and Destruction, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, 1991
  75. Arjmandi, H., Amani, E., A Numerical Investigation of the Entropy Generation in and Thermodynamic Optimization of a Combustion Chamber, Energy, 81 (2015), Mar., pp. 706-718
  76. Elwekeel, F. N., Abdala, A. M., Effect of Mist Cooling Technique on Exergy and Energy Analysis of Steam Injected Gas Turbine Cycle, Applied Thermal Engineering, 98 (2016), Dec., pp. 298-309
  77. Stathopoulos, P., et al., Emissions of a Wet Premixed Flame of Natural Gas and a Mixture With Hydrogen at High Pressure, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 139 (2017), 4, 041507
  78. Kuhn, P., et al. Design and Assessment of a Fuel-Flexible Low Emission Combustor for Dry and Steam-Diluted Conditions, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, Montreal, Canada, 2015, pp. V04BT04A024-V04BT04A024
  79. Reichel, T. G., et al., Investigation of Lean Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Hydrogen Burner with Axial Air Injection Using OH-Plif Imaging, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, Montreal, Canada, 2015, pp. V04AT04A036-V04AT04A036
  80. Fleck, J. M., et al., Experimental Investigation of a Generic, Fuel Flexible Reheat Combustor at Gas Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Glasgow, UK, 2010, pp. 583-592
  81. Goodwin, D., CANTERA, An Open-Source, Extensible Software Suite for CVD Process Simulation, Chemical Vapor Deposition XVI and EUROCVD, 14 (2003), 40, pp. 2003-08
  82. Beer, J., Lee, K., The Effect of the Residence Time Distribution on the Performance and Efficiency of Combustors, Symposium (International) on Combustion, 10 (1965), 1, pp. 1187-1202
  83. Michaud, M. G., et al., Chemical Mechanisms of NOx Formation for Gas Turbine Conditions, Symposium (International) on Combustion, 24 (1992), 1, pp. 879-887
  84. Stathopoulos, P., et al., The Ultra-Wet Cycle for High Efficiency, Low Emission Gas Turbines, Proceedings, 7th International Gas Turbine Conference (ETN: IGTC-14), Brussels, Belgium, 2014, pp. 14-15
  85. Goke, S., et al., Influence of Pressure and Steam Dilution on NOx and CO Emissions in a Premixed Natural Gas Flame, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 136 (2014), 9, 091508
  86. Iancu, P., et al., Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation of Fuel Gas and Steam Mixtures to Decrease NOx Emissions of Industrial Burners, in: Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2017, pp. 565-570
  87. Sayre, A., et al., Scaling Characteristics of Aerodynamics and Low-NOx Properties of Industrial Natural Gas Burners, The Scaling 400 Study - Part IV: The 300 kW BERL Test Results, GRI Topical Report, 94 (1994), 0186
  88. ***, Union Gas, Natural-Gas (Information about Industrial Methane Composition),, 2016
  89. Rasi, S., Biogas Composition and Upgrading to Biomethane, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland, 2009
  90. Wang, F., Chiou, J.-S., Integration of Steam Injection and Inlet Air Cooling for a Gas Turbine Generation System, Energy Conversion and Management, 45 (2004), 1, pp. 15-26
  91. Hwang, D. J., et al., Numerical Study on Flame Structure and NO Formation in CH4-O2-N2 Counterflow Diffusion Flame Diluted with H2O, International Journal of Energy Research, 28 (2004), 14, pp. 1255-1267
  92. Chen, A. G., et al., Humid Air NOx Reduction Effect on Liquid Fuel Combustion, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2002: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2002, pp. 917-925
  93. Bhargava, A., et al., An Experimental and Modelling Study of Humid Air Premixed Flames, Proceedings, ASME 1999 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition, Orlando, Fla., USA, 1999, pp. V002T02A002-V002T02A002
  94. Meyer, J.-L.,G. Grienche. An experimental study of steam injection in an aeroderivative gas turbine, Proceedings, ASME 1997 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition, Orlando, Fla., USA, 1997, pp. V003T10A013-V003T10A013
  95. Bhargava, A., et al. Pressure Effect on NOx and CO Emissions in Industrial Gas Turbines, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2000: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000, pp. V002T02A017-V002T02A017
  96. Mansour, A., et al., Application of Macrolamination Technology to Lean, Premix Combustion, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2000: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000, pp. V002T02A035-V002T02A035
  97. Kayadelen, H. K., Ust, Y., Prediction of Equilibrium Products and Thermodynamic Properties in H2O Injected Combustion for CαHβOγNδ Type Fuels, Fuel, 113 (2013), Nov., pp. 389-401
  98. Design, R., Chemkin-Pro 15092, Reaction Design: San Diego, Cal., USA, 2009
  99. Goke, S., et al., Influence of Steam Dilution on the Combustion of Natural Gas and Hydrogen in Premixed and Rich-Quench-Lean Combustors, Fuel Processing Technology, 107 (2013), Mar., pp. 14-22
  100. Zhao, D., et al., Behavior and Effect on NOx Formation of OH Radical in Methane-Air Diffusion Flame with Steam Addition, Combustion and Flame, 130 (2002), 4, pp. 352-360
  101. Yamashita, H., et al., The NOx Formation by Steam Injection Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics, International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 15 (2001), 3, pp. 310-22
  102. Kee, R. J., et al., The Chemkin Thermodynamic Data Base, Technical Report, Sandia National Labs., Livermore, Cal., USA, 1990
  103. Smooke, M. D., Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms and Asymptotic Approximations for Methane-Air Flames: A Topical Volume, Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1991
  104. Yamashita, H., Numerical Study on NOx Production of Transitional Fuel Jet Diffusion Flame, JSME International Journal Series B Fluids and Thermal Engineering, 43 (2000), 1, pp. 97-103
  105. Delattin, F., et al., Effects of Steam Injection on Microturbine Efficiency and Performance, Energy, 33 (2008), 2, pp. 241-247
  106. Boushaki, T., et al., Effects of Hydrogen and Steam Addition on Laminar Burning Velocity of Methane-air Premixed Flame: Experimental and Numerical Analysis, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37 (2012), 11, pp. 9412-9422
  107. Alaefour, I., Reddy, B.V., Effect of Steam Injection in Gas Turbine Combustion Chamber on the Performance of a Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Power Generation Unit, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 110-116 (2012), Oct., pp. 4574-4577
  108. Nadir, M., Ghenaiet, A., Steam Turbine Injection Generator Performance Estimation Considering Turbine Blade Cooling, Energy, 132 (2017), Aug., pp. 248-256
  109. Chiesa, P., et al., Using Hydrogen as Gas Turbine Fuel, Transactions of the ASME-A-Engineering for Gas, Turbines and Power, 127 (2005), 1, pp. 73-80
  110. Belokon, A. A., et al., Prediction of Combustion Efficiency and NOx Levels for Diffusion Flame Combustors in HAT Cycles, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2002: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2002, pp. 791-797
  111. Lefebvre, A. H., Gas Turbine Combustion, Hemisphere Pub, Corp., Washington, USA, 1983
  112. Kuznetsov, V., Sabelnikov, V., Turbulence and Combustion, Hemisphere Pub, Corp., New York, USA, 1990
  113. Hermann, F., et al., Computational and Experimental Investigation of Emissions in a Highly Humidified Premixed Flame, Proceedings, ASME Turbo Expo 2003, Collocated with the 2003 International Joint Power Generation Conference, Atlanta, Geo., USA, 2003, pp. 819-827
  114. Terhaar, S., et al., Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow in a Swirl-Stabilized Burner for Ultra-Wet Combustion, Proceedings, 41st AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, Honolulu, Hi., USA, 2011, p. 3584
  115. Koroll, G., Mulpuru, S., The Effect of Dilution with Steam on the Burning Velocity and Structure of Premixed Hydrogen Flames, Symposium (International) on Combustion, 21 (1988), 1, pp. 1811-1819
  116. Kobayashi, H., et al., Dilution Effects of Superheated Water Vapor on Turbulent Premixed Flames at High Pressure and High Temperature, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 32 (2009), 2, pp. 2607-2614
  117. Kobayashi, H., et al., Effects of CO2 Dilution on Turbulent Premixed Flames at High Pressure and High Temperature, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31 (2007), 1, pp. 1451-1458
  118. Syed, M. S., A New Diagnostics Tool for Water Injected Gas Turbines, Emissions Monitoring and Modelling, Ph. D. thesis, Universuty of Lousiana, Lafayette, La., USA, 2013
  119. Cardu, M., Baica, M., Gas Turbine Installation with Total Water Injection in the Combustion Chamber, Energy Conversion and Management, 43 (2002), 17, pp. 2395-2404

© 2021 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence