International Scientific Journal

External Links


The low energy building concept is based on improving the building envelope to reduce heating and cooling loads. Improvements in building envelopes depend not only on climatic conditions but also on insulation. In this study, the thermal performance of external walls was studied by using a three-level full factorial statistical experimental design. An opaque wall in low energy buildings was chosen in order to study the effect of selected factors of city (A), orientation (B), insulation location (C), and month of the year (D) on heat loss or gain. A software was used to calculate the ANOVA table. As a result, all three factors of months of the year, city and orientation of the building façade were found to be significant factor effects for heat transfer. Two-factor interactions of AB, AD, BD, and CD were found to be significant. Therefore, the effects of season, location and orientation were successfully shown to be effective parameters.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-11-26
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-11-27
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. Arslanoglu, N., Yigit, A., Investigation of efficient parameters on optimum insulation thickness based on theoretical‐Taguchi combined method, Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 36(2017), 1824-1831.
  2. Sevindir, M. K., et al., Modelling the optimum distribution of insulation material, Renewable Energy, 113(2017), 74-84.
  3. Kurekci, N. A., Determination of optimum insulation thickness for building walls by using heating and cooling degree-day values of all Turkey's provincial centers, Energy and Buildings, 118(2016), 197-213.
  4. Jraida, K., et al., A study on the optimum insulation thicknesses of building walls with respect to different zones in Morocco, International Journal of Ambient Energy, 38(2016), 550-555.
  5. Kayfeci, M., et al., Determination of optimum insulation thickness of external walls with two different methods in cooling applications, Applied Thermal Engineering, 50(2013), 217-224.
  6. Ucar, A., Thermo-economic analysis method for optimization of insulation thickness for the four different climatic regions of Turkey, Energy, 35(2010), 1854-1864.
  7. Pekdogan, T., Basaran, T., Thermal performance of different exterior wall structures based on wall orientation, Applied Thermal Engineering, 112(2017), 15-24.
  8. Fathipour, R., Hadidi, A., Analytical solution for the study of time lag and decrement factor for building walls in a climate of Iran, Energy, 134(2017), 167-180.
  9. Nematchoua, M. K., et al., A comparative study on optimum insulation thickness of walls and energy savings in equatorial and tropical climate, International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 6(2017), 170-182.
  10. Ferroukhi, M. Y., et al., Impact of coupled heat and moisture transfer effects on buildings energy consumption. Thermal Science, (2015), 215-225.
  11. Wati, E., et al., Influence of external shading on optimum insulation thickness of building walls in a tropical region, Applied Thermal Engineering, 90(2015), 754-762.
  12. Dedinec, A. et al., Optimization of heat saving in buildings using unsteady heat transfer model, Thermal Science, 19 (2015), 3, pp. 881-892, doi: 10.2298/tsci140917037d.
  13. Ozel, M., Effect of insulation location on dynamic heat-transfer characteristics of building external walls and optimization of insulation thickness, Energy, and Buildings, 72(2014), 288-295.
  14. Ibrahim, M., et al., A study on the thermal performance of exterior walls covered with a recently patented silica-aerogel-based insulating coating, Building and Environment, 81(2014), 112-122.
  15. Merabtine, A. et al., Pseudo-bond graph model for the analysis of the thermal behaviour of buildings, Thermal Science, 17 (2013), 3, pp. 723-732.
  16. Gagliano, A., et al., Assessment of the dynamic thermal performance of massive buildings, Energy and Buildings, 72(2014), 361-370.
  17. Başaran, T., Thermal analysis of the domed vernacular houses of Harran, Turkey, Indoor and Built Environment, 20(2011), 543-554.
  18. Andjelkovic, V. B., et al., Thermal mass impact on energy performance of a low, medium, and heavy mass building in Belgrade, Thermal Science, 16 (2012), Suppl. 2, pp. S447-S459.
  19. Axaopoulos, I., et al., Optimum insulation thickness for external walls on different orientations considering the speed and direction of the wind, Applied Energy, 117(2014), 167-175.
  20. Sun, C., et al., Investigation of time lags and decrement factors for different building outside temperatures. Energy and Buildings, 61(2013), 1-7.
  21. Alizadeh, M., Sadrameli, S. M., Numerical modeling and optimization of thermal comfort in the building: Central composite design and CFD simulation, Energy and Buildings, 164(2018), 187-202.
  22. Jung, U. H., et al., Numerical investigation on the melting of circular finned PCM system using CFD & full factorial design, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 30(2016), 2813-2826.
  23. Celik, N., et al., Thermal Science, (2017), 19-30.
  24. Ramkumar, R., Ragupathy, A., Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using the Taguchi method. Thermal science, (2013), 457-470.
  25. Wei, Y. et al., A review of data-driven approaches for prediction and classification of building energy consumption Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 82 (2018), pp. 1027-1047.
  26. Amasyali, K., El-Gohary, N.M., A review of data-driven building energy consumption prediction studies Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 81 (2018), pp. 1192-1205.
  27. Leigh, H. D., Towe, C. A., Use of a screening experimental design to develop a high Al2O3 casting slip, American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 66(1987), 786-789.
  28. Montgomery, D. C. Design, and Analysis of Experiments, New York, NY: Wiley, (1991).
  29. Šúri, M., et al., Potential of solar electricity generation in the European Union member states and candidate countries, Solar Energy, 81(2007), 1295-1305.
  30. Duffie, J. A., Beckman, W. A., Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. John Wiley & Sons, (2013).
  31. Turkish Standards Institution., TS825: Thermal Insulation Requirements for Buildings, Ankara, (2013).
  32. Liu, Y., Harris, D. J., Full-scale measurements of the convective coefficient on the external surface of a low-rise building in sheltered conditions, Building and Environment, 42(2007), 2718-2736.
  33. GRASS., (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) GIS, (2006).
  34. ESRA., (European Solar Radiation Atlas), the Fourth edition, published by the Commission of the European Communities by Presses de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, France, (2000).
  35. Tokuç, A., et al., An evaluation methodology proposal for building envelopes containing phase change materials: the case of a flat roof in Turkey's climate zones. Architectural Science Review, 60(2017), 408-423.
  36. The Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs and General Directorate of Meteorology, Records for Weather Data (2005-2014) Turkey.
  37. ASHRAE, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010: Thermal Environment Conditions for Human Occupancy, American Society of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, 2014.
  38. Olivier, D., The Carbonlite Energy Performance Standards, In Presentation at AECB Annual Conference, (2008).
  39. Stat-ease: Design-Expert (Version 11),
  40. Anderson, M. J., Whitcomb, P. J., Response surface methods simplified. New York: Productivity, (2005).
  41. Harris, H., Lautenberger, W., Strategy of Experimentation, EI Dupont de Nemours & Co. Inc. Short Course Notes, (1976).
  42. Badache, M., et al., A full 34 factorial experimental design for efficiency optimization of an unglazed transpired solar collector prototype, Solar Energy, 86(2012), 2802-2810.

© 2020 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence