International Scientific Journal


In this work, an experimental campaign on different nanofluids and microfluids, obtained by the dispersion of 3 different metal oxides (CuO, ZnO and TiO2) with diathermic oil or deionized water has been carried out, in order to extend phonon theory to liquids, as already done in a previous work on Al2O3. Thermal conductivity of stable samples was evaluated by time. The experimental results on thermal conductivity of stable micrometric and nanometric particles suspensions in oil and water showed a further proof of Mass Difference Scattering phenomenon.
PAPER REVISED: 2019-05-21
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2019-06-05
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. Maxwell, J. C., Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1873.
  2. Choi, S.U.S., Eastman, J.A., Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, D. A. Siginer and H. P. Wang, Eds., Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, ASME, New York, Vol. 66, 1995, pp. 99-105.
  3. Yu, W., Choi, S.U.S., The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: A renovated Maxwell model, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 5, pp. 167-171, 2003.
  4. Leong, K.C., et. al., A model for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids - the effect of interfacial layer, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 8, pp. 245-254, 2006.
  5. Lee, D., Thermophysical properties of interfacial layer in nanofluids, Langmuir, vol. 23(11), pp. 6011-6018, 2007.
  6. Li, L., et. al., An investigation of molecular layering at the liquid-solid interface in nanofluids by molecular dynamics simulation, Physics Letters A, vol. 372, pp. 4541-4544, 2008.
  7. Milanese M., et. al., An investigation of layering phenomenon at the liquid-solid interface in Cu and CuO based nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 103 (2016) 564-571.
  8. Ceylan, A., et. al., Enhanced Solubility Ag-Cu Nanoparticles and Their Thermal Transport Properties, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 37A, 2006.
  9. Avsec, J., The combined analysis of phonon and electron heat transfer mechanism on thermal conductivity for nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 51, pp. 4589-4598, 2008.
  10. Prasher, R., et. al., Thermal Conductivity of Nanoscale Colloidal Solutions (Nanofluids), Physical Review Letters, vol. 94, 2005.
  11. Keblinski, P., et. al., Mechanisms of heat flow in suspensions of nano-sized particles (nanofluids), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 63, 2002.
  12. Evans, W., et. al., Role of Brownian motion hydrodynamics on nanofluid thermal conductivity, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, 2006.
  13. Iacobazzi, F., et. al., A critical analysis of clustering phenomenon in Al2O3 nanofluids, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 135(1) (2019), pp. 371-377 doi:10.1007/s10973-018-7099-9.
  14. Gao, J.W., et. al., Experimental Investigation of Heat Conduction Mechanisms in Nanofluids. Clue on Clustering, Nano Letters, 2009 Vol. 9, No. 12 4128-4132
  15. Prasher, R., et. al., Effect of aggregation kinetics on the thermal conductivity of nanoscale colloidal solutions (nanofluid), Nano Lett., vol. 6(7), pp. 1529-1534, 2006.
  16. Tahmooressi, H., et. al., Percolating micro-structures as a key-role of heat conduction mechanism in nanofluids, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017 Vol. 114, 346-359.
  17. Wu, C., et. al., Effect of nanoparticle clustering on the effective thermal conductivity of concentrated silica colloids, Physical Review E 81, 011406 2010.
  18. Hong, K. S., et. al., Thermal conductivity of Fe nanofluids depending on the cluster size of nanoparticles, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, 2006, doi: 10.1063/1.2166199.
  19. Karthikeyan, N.R., et. al., Effect of clustering on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Materials Chemistry and Physics vol. 109, pp 50-55, 2008.
  20. Kapitza, P. L., Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 11, 1 (1941) (J. Phys. (USSR)4, 181 (1941)); also in Collected Papers of P. L. Kapitza, Vol. 2, D. ter Haar, ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1965), p. 581.
  21. Xue L., et. al., Two regimes of thermal resistance at a liquid-solid interface, The Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 337 (2003); doi: 10.1063/1.1525806.
  22. Iacobazzi, F., et. al., An explanation of the Al2O3 nanofluid thermal conductivity based on the phonon theory of liquid, Energy 116 (2016) 786-794.
  23. Colangelo, G., et. al., Results of experimental investigations on the heat conductivity of nanofluids based on diathermic oil for high temperature applications, Appl Energy (2011), vol 97, 828-833 doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.11.026
  24. Kim, W., et. al., Thermal conductivity reduction and thermoelectric figure of merit increase by embedding nanoparticles in crystalline semiconductors, Phys Rev Lett., vol. 96, 2006.
  25. Vineis, C.J., et. al., Nanostructured Thermoelectrics: Big Efficiency Gain from Small Features", Advanced Materials 22, 3970-3980, (2010).
  26. Bolmatov, D., et. al., The phonon theory of liquid thermodynamics, Scientific Reports 2:421, DOI: 10.1038/srep00421.
  27. Frenkel, J., Kinetic Theory of Liquids; Oxford University Press, 1947.
  28. Giordano, V. M., Monaco, G., Fingerprints of Order and Disorder on the High-Frequency Dynamics of Liquids, PNAS 2010, 107, 21985-21989.
  29. Giordano, V. M., Monaco, G., Inelastic X-ray Scattering Study of Liquid Ga: Implications for the Short-Range Order, Phys. Rev. B 2011, 84, 052201.
  30. Brazhkin V.V., Trachenko, K., Collective Excitation and thermodynamics of disordered state: new insights into old problem, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B | J. Phys. Chem. B 2014, 118, 11417−11427
  31. Razeghi, M., Fundamentals of solid state engineering, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
  32. Buron, H., et. al., Optical characterization of concentrated dispersions: applications to laboratory analyses and on-line process monitoring and control, Polym Int 53:1205-1209 (2004) DOI: 10.1002/pi.1231
  33. Geiger, G. H., Poirier, D. R., Transport Phenomena in Metallurgy, Addision-Wesley, 1973, Reading, PA.
  34. Olatunji, O.N., et. al., Application of particle sedimentation analysis in sterically-stabilized TiO2 particles stability assessment, Advanced Powder Technology 27 (2016) 1325-1336.

© 2020 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence