International Scientific Journal

Authors of this Paper

External Links


Human local parts have different thermal responses to low temperature environment. The objective of this paper is to find out the most sensitive parts which are extremely discomforting in low temperature environments. Based on previous experimental data, the relationship among skin temperature, air temperature, and clothing insulation was fitted, and the neutral skin temperatures were obtained. The local skin temperatures at different parts of the human body were compared with neutral skin temperatures in different air temperatures and clothes. The results showed that the local parts of foot, hand, upper arm, and calf deviated far from the neutral condition and were selected as the principal parts to be warmed. The findings are significant to improve human local thermal discomfort.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-04-22
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-06-20
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. Fiala, D., First Principles Modeling of Thermal Sensation Response in Steady State and Transient Con-ditions, ASHRAE Transactions, 109 (2003), 1, pp.179-186
  2. Berglund, L. G., Cunnlngham, D. J., Parameters of human Discomfort in Warm Environments, ASHRAE Transactions, 92 (1986), 2B, pp. 732-746
  3. Tanaka, H., et al., Study on Car Air Conditioning System Controlled by car Occupants' Skin Tempera-ture - Part 2: Development of a New Air Conditioning System, SAE Technical Paper Series, 101 (1992), 6, pp. 21-29
  4. Frank, S. M., et al., Relative Contribution of Core and Autonomic Responses in Humans, Journal of Ap-plied Physiology, 86 (1999), 5, pp. 1588-1593
  5. Fanger, P. O., Thermal Comfort, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, USA, 1972
  6. Liu, H., et al., Impact of Cold Thermal Environment Conditions on Human Thermal Response, Journal of Central South University of Technology, 18 (2011), 4, pp. 1285-1292
  7. Hu, C. P., Influence of Local Thermal Stimulation on Human Thermal Comfort under Partial Cold Envi-ronment (in Chinese), M. Sc. thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, 2014
  8. Nakamura, M., et al., A New System for the Analysis of Thermal Judgments: Multipoint Measurements of Skin Temperatures and Temperature-Related Sensation and Their Joint Visualization, Journal of Physiological Science, 56 (2006), 6, pp. 459-464
  9. Liu, W. W., et al., Evaluation of Calculation Methods of Mean Skin Temperature for Use in Thermal Comfort Study, Building and Environment, 46 (2011), 2, pp. 478-488
  10. Liu, Y. F., et al., Preliminary Study on the Characteristics of Human Skin Temperature Adaptation and Vertical Distribution (in Chinese), Journal of Environmental Health, 31 (2014), 1, pp. 68-70
  11. Olsen, B. W., Fanger, P. O., The Skin Temperature Distribution for Resting Man in Comfort, Archives des Sciences Physiologiques, 27 (1973), 4, pp. A385-A393
  12. Zhang H., Human Thermal Sensation and Comfort in Transient and non-Uniform Thermal Environ-ments, Ph. D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Cal., USA, 2003
  13. Sun, Y. M., Experimental Study on Human Thermal Sensation Characteristics Based on Skin Tempera-ture (in Chinese), M. Sc. thesis, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, 2009
  14. Mayer, E., Objective Criteria for Thermal Comfort, Building and Environment, 28 (1993), 4, pp. 399-403
  15. Charlie, H., et al., Skin and Core Temperature Response to Partial-and Whole-Body Heating and Cool-ing, Journal of Thermal Biology, 29 (2004), 7-8, pp. 549-558
  16. Hardy, J. D., DuBois E. F., The Technic of Measuring Radiation and Convection, Journal of Nutrition, 15 (1938), 5, pp. 461-475
  17. Gagge, A. P., et al., Comfort and Thermal Sensation and Associated Physiological Responses During Exercise at Various Ambient Temperatures, Environment Research, 1 (1967), 1, pp. 1-20
  18. Li, B. Z., et al., Shi Nei Re Huan Jing Yu Ren Ti Re Shu Shi (Indoor Environment and Thermal Comfort, in Chinese), Chongqing University Press, Chongqing, China, 2012
  19. Arens, E., Zhang, H., The Skin's Role in Human Thermoregulation and Comfort, in: Thermal and Mois-ture Transport in Fibrous Materials, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Sawston, UK, 2006, pp. 560-602
  20. Nilsson, H.O., Thermal Comfort Evaluation with Virtual Manikin Methods, Building and Environment, 42(2007), 12, pp. 4000-4005
  21. Liu, X.R., Experimental Study on Thermal Comfort of Human Body Based on Metabolic Rate and Skin Temperature (in Chinese), M. Sc. thesis, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao, China, 2010
  22. Zeng, L. L., Experimental Study on Thermal Response of Indoor Thermal Environment Based on Body Skin Surface Temperature, M. Sc. thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China, 2008

© 2019 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence