International Scientific Journal


In this paper, the thermodynamic and economic efficiency of three different heat supply processes are compared, based on exergy flows and costs of heat. A gas turbine process with a heat recovery boiler, a gas and steam turbine combined cycle process and a high temperature heat pump system recovering waste heat are analysed. The aim is to provide heat as 4 bar(abs) saturated steam. The economic analysis bases on the comparison of the consumption-related costs of heat, the capital-related costs of heat, and the operation-related costs of heat. The results show that the heat pump system has higher exergetic efficiency than the gas turbine or the gas turbine combined cycle process. For the consumption related costs, the economic calculation shows that the operation of a heat pump, working with a coefficient of performance of four and for a natural gas price of 25 €/MWh, is the cheapest way of heat production as long as the electricity price is lower than 45 €/MWh. For the period from January 2013 until June 2016 the total costs of heat, based on real gas and electricity prices from the European Energy Exchange, are calculated and analysed. The results show that the share of heat provided by the heat pump system varies between 45% and 76%. Especially in 2013 and 2014, the economic conditions for operating heat pumps were very good. Since October 2015 the natural gas prices have seen a decrease which favours industrial heat supply with combined heat and power systems.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-03-23
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-03-27
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