International Scientific Journal


Public transportation fuel consumption modeling shows a great importance because of economic and environmental aspects. Considering to the metropolises with millions of inhabitants with circulating thousands of buses that uses intercity lines, its importance is becoming vital in planning both operation of transportation company and city mobility planning. In this context a detailed fuel consumption modelling approach for public transportation buses was used for vehicle fuel consumption assessment during operation. The methodology was developed with IPG TruckMaker + AVL Cruise co-simulation environment following instantaneous speed, load and 3-D road data primarily besides model parameters. The model was validated at one of the most important public transportation axle of the world, Istanbul Metrobus System, at two direction which carries over ~1 million passenger daily in 24 hours operation with petrol engine buses. The comparison simulation/measurements showed that the proposed fuel consumption model is accurate and can predict fuel consumption behavior for public transit buses in a reliable band. In addition, this methodology can be used to investigate various powertrain and operating scenarios near future for more efficient public transportation with high reliability.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-05-10
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-05-13
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. UITP, Towards low/zero-carbon urban mobility in Europe, International Association of Public Transport. (2011)
  2. UITP, Latest figures on the urban bus fleet in the European Union, International Association of Public Transport. (2007)
  3. Jovanavic, S.S.,D.M. Knezevic, Theoretical analysis of the cumulative costs of different diesel bus alternatives for a Public transport in the city of Belgrade, Therml Science, 21. (2017), 1B, pp. 669-681
  4. Özener, O., Real driving emissions and fuel consumption chracteristrics of İstanbul Public Transportation, Thermal Science, 21. (2017), 1B, pp. 655-667
  5. Misanovic, S.M., et al., Energy efficiency of diferent bus subsytems in Belgrade Public Transport, Thermal Science, 19. (2015), 6, pp. 2233-22244
  6. Faris, W., et al., Impact of Intelligent Transportation Systems on Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emission Modeling: An Overview. (2014), DOI No. 10.4271/2013-01-9094
  7. Faris, W.F., et al., Vehicle fuel consumption and emission modelling: an in-depth literature review, International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, 6. (2011), 3-4, pp. 318-395, DOI No. 10.1504/ijvsmt.2011.044232
  8. An, F., et al., Development of Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model: Operating Under Hot-Stabilized Conditions, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1587. (1997), pp. 52-62, DOI No. 10.3141/1587-07
  9. Ahn, K.,A. Trani, Microscopic fuel consumption and emission modeling, 78th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board Proc. (1999)
  10. Rakha, H.,M. Van Aerde, Requirements for evaluating traffic signal control impacts on energy and emissions based on instantaneous speed and acceleration measurements, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1738. (2000), pp. 56-57
  11. Zallinger, M., et al., Improving an instantaneous emission model for passenger cars, 14th International Conference on Transport and Air Pollution Proc. (2005), pp. 167-176
  12. Smit, R., et al., A new modelling approach for road traffic emissions: VERSIT+, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 12. (2007), 6, pp. 414-422, DOI No.
  13. USA, U.S.E.P.A.-. Methodology for Developing Modal Emission Rates for EPA's Multi-Scale Motor Vehicle and Equipment Emission System. (2002)
  14. Lei, W., et al., Microscopic Emission and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Light-duty Vehicles Using Portable Emission Measurement System Data International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, 4. (2010), 6, pp. 495-502
  15. Company, I., IPG Truckmaker, (2017)
  16. AVL, AVL CRUISE, (2017)
  17. AVL, AVL KMA Mobile Product Description. (2013)
  18. Goblin System, CAN Diagnostic Tool, (2016)
  19. Davor Vujanović, et al., Energy efficiency as a criterion in the vehicle fleet management process, Thermal Science, 14. (2010), 4, pp. 865-878
  20. Joumard, R., et al., Characterizing real unit emissions for light duty goods vehicles, Atmospheric Environment, 37. (2003), 37, pp. 5217-5225, DOI No.
  21. Automotive, I., IPG Driver Manuel, IPG GMBAH. (2017)
  22. Ma, H., et al., Effects of Driver Acceleration Behavior on Fuel Consumption of City Buses. 2014, SAE International
  23. Vagg, C., et al., A Driver Advisory Tool to Reduce Fuel Consumption. 2013, SAE International
  24. ÖZKAN, M., et al. Predicting İstanbul Metrobus Line Fuel Consumption By Using AVL Cruise & Ipg Truck Maker Co Simulation,AVL Advanced Simulation Technologies International User Conference 2015, Graz,2015, p. 3

© 2019 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence