THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

CAMPUS AND COMMUNITY MICRO GRIDS INTEGRATION OF BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES: CASE STUDY OF SPLIT 3 AREA, CROATIA - PART A

ABSTRACT
Micro grids interconnect loads and distributed energy resources as a single controllable entity. New installations of renewable energy sources (RES) in urban areas, such as Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV), provide opportunities to increase energy independence and diversify energy sources in the energy system. This paper explores the integration of RES into two case study communities in an urban agglomeration to provide optimal conditions to meet a share of the electrical loads. Energy planning case studies for decentralized generation of renewable energy are conducted in H2RES energy planning software for hourly energy balances. The results indicate that BIPV and PV in the case study communities can cover about 17% of the recorded electrical demand of both areas. On a yearly basis, there will be a 0.025 GWh surplus of PV production with a maximum value of 1.25 MWh in one hour of operation unless grid storage is used. This amounts to a total investment cost of 13.36 million EUR. The results are useful for proposing future directions for the various case study communities targeting sustainable development.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2015-12-03
PAPER REVISED: 2016-02-11
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2016-02-12
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2016-04-09
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI151203080G
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2016, VOLUME 20, ISSUE 4, PAGES [1135 - 1145]
REFERENCES
  1. ***, DOE-MICROGRID, https://building-microgrid.lbl.gov/microgrid-definitions
  2. Gulin, T., et al., Load Forecast of a University Building for Application in Microgrid Power Flow Optimization, Energycon 2014, 2014
  3. Connolly, D., et al., A Review of Computer Tools for Analysing the Integration of Renewable Energy into Various Energy Systems, Appl. Energy, 87 (2010), 4, pp. 1059-1082
  4. Mendes, G. G., et al., On the Planning and Analysis of Integrated Community Energy Systems: A Review and Survey of Available Tools, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 15 (2011), 9, pp. 4836-4854
  5. Pina, A., et al., High-resolution Modeling Framework for Planning Electricity Systems with High Pene-tration of Renewables, Appl. Energy, 112 (2013), C, pp. 215-223
  6. Komiyama, R., Fujii, Y., Assessment of Massive Integration of Photovoltaic System Considering Rechargeable Battery in Japan with High Time-resolution Optimal Power Generation Mix Model, Energy Policy, 66 (2014), C, pp. 73-89
  7. Sanseverino, E. R., et al., An Execution, Monitoring and Replanning Approach for Optimal Energy Management in Microgrids, Energy, 36 (2011), 5, pp. 3429-3436
  8. Gu, W., et al., Modeling, Planning and Optimal Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Microgrid: A Review, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 54 (2014), Jan., pp. 26-37
  9. Obara, S., Watanabe, S., Optimization of Equipment Capacity and an Operational Method Based on Cost Analysis of a Fuel Cell Microgrid, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37 (2012), 9, pp. 7814-7830
  10. Zhang, D., et al., Fair Electricity Transfer Price and Unit Capacity Selection for Microgrids, Energy Econ., 36 (2013), Mar., pp. 581-593
  11. Al-Ali, A. R., et al., Smart Home Renewable Energy Management System, Energy Procedia, 12 (2011), Dec., pp. 120-126
  12. Zakariazadeh, A., et al., Multi-objective Scheduling of Electric Vehicles in Smart Distribution System, Energy Convers. Manag., 79 (2014), Mar., pp. 43-53
  13. Clement-Nyns, K., et al., The Impact of Vehicle-to-grid on the Distribution Grid, Electr. Power Syst. Res., 81 (2011), 1, pp. 185-192
  14. Kang, D. J., Park, S., A Case Study on the Grid Impact of PHEVs to Distribution Power System, Proceedings, Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2011, pp. 1-6
  15. Bačelić Medić, Z., et al., Sustainability of Remote Communities: 100% Renewable Island of Hvar, J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, 5 (2013), 4, pp. 041806
  16. Banos, R., et al., Optimization Methods Applied to Renewable and Sustainable Energy: A Review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 15 (2011), 4, pp. 1753-1766
  17. Li, D. H. W., et al., Zero Energy Buildings and Sustainable Development Implications ‒ A Review, Energy, 54 (2013), June, pp. 1-10
  18. Chmutina, K., et al., Concern or Compliance? Drivers of Urban Decentralised Energy Initiatives, Sustain. Cities Soc., 10 (2014), Feb., pp. 122-129
  19. Mah, D. N. Y., et al., The Role of the State in Sustainable Energy Transitions: A Case Study of Large Smart Grid Demonstration Projects in Japan, Energy Policy, 63 (2013), Dec., pp. 726-737
  20. Saket, R. K., Design Aspects and Probabilistic Approach for Generation Reliability Evaluation of MWW Based Micro-hydro Power Plant, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 28 (2013), Dec., pp. 917-929
  21. Krajačić, G., et al., H2RES, Energy Planning Tool for Island Energy Systems – The Case of the Island of Mljet, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 34 (2009), 16, pp. 7015-7026
  22. Duić, N., Da Graca Carvalho, M., Increasing Renewable Energy Sources in Island Energy Supply: Case Study Porto Santo, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 8 (2004), 4, pp. 383-399
  23. Antoine, B., et al., Energy Scenarios for Malta, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 33 (2008), 16, pp. 4235-4246
  24. Krajačić, G., et al., Hydrogen as an Energy Vector in the Islands’ Energy Supply, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 33 (2008), 4, pp. 1091-1103
  25. Krajačić, G., et al., Planning for a 100% Independent Energy System Based on Smart Energy Storage for Integration of Renewables and CO2 Emissions Reduction, Appl. Therm. Eng., 31 (2011), 13, pp. 2073-2083
  26. Gašparović, G., et al., Advanced Modelling of an Electric Vehicle Module in the H2RES Energy Pla-nning Software, Proceedings, The 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems in SDEWES Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2013
  27. Petruschke, P., et al., A Hybrid Approach for the Efficient Synthesis of Renewable Energy Systems, Appl. Energy, 135 (2014), Dec., pp. 625-633
  28. Gašparović, G., et al., Multi-objective Long-term Optimization of Energy Systems with High Share of Renewable Energy Resources, Digital Proceedings, The 1st South East European Conference on Sus-tainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, Ohrid, Macedonia, 2013
  29. ***, Urban Aglomeration Split, http://www.split.hr/Default.aspx?art=7214
  30. ***, 2011 Census RH, http://www.dzs.hr/Hrv/censuses/census2011/censuslogo.htm
  31. ***, Split-Dalmatia County Webpage, http://www.dalmacija.hr/zupanija/gradovi
  32. ***, OIEKPP-MINGORP, http://oie.mingorp.hr/default.aspx?id=24
  33. ***, Kozjak Solar Power Plant, http://www.cemex.hr/PredsjednikJosipovicotvorioSuncanuelektranu Kozjak.aspx
  34. ***, Vis Solar Power Plant, http://www.poslovni.hr/hrvatska/vis-dobiva-najvecu-solarnu-elektranu-u-hrvatskoj-301595
  35. ***, FESB Solar Power Plant, http://www.croenergo.eu/na-fesb-u-prva-splitska-solarna-elektrana-18956.aspx
  36. ***, HEP DSO Annual Report 2013, http://hep.hr/ods/publikacije/godisnje2013.pdf
  37. ***, PV-GIS, http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/
  38. ***, HEP Elektrodalmacija DSO, http://www.hep.hr/ods/en/dp/default.aspx
  39. ***, Solar Energy in Croatia, www.geni.org
  40. ***, UNIZG-FSB, Pre-feasibility Study of Electrification of Transport and use of Renewable Energy Resources on the Area of National Park Mljet, 2015
  41. ***, PVCalc Case Study Split ROI Calculation, http://goo.gl/Lt5Wyu
  42. ***, FZOEU – Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund

© 2017 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence