THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

HEAT GENERATION DURING PLUNGE STAGE IN FRICTION STIR WELDING

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the heat generation in the Al alloy Al2024-T3 plate under different rotating speeds and plunge speeds during the plunge stage of friction stir welding (FSW). A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) is developed in the commercial code ABAQUS/Explicit using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, the Johnson-Cook material law and Coulomb’s Law of friction. The heat generation in FSW can be divided into two parts: frictional heat generated by the tool and heat generated by material deformation near the pin and the tool shoulder region. Numerical results obtained in this work indicate a more prominent influence from the friction-generated heat. The slip rate of the tool relative to the workpiece material is related to this portion of heat. The material velocity, on the other hand, is related to the heat generated by plastic deformation. Increasing the plunging speed of the tool decreases the friction-generated heat and increases the amount of deformation-generated heat, while increasing the tool rotating speed has the opposite influence on both heat portions. Numerical results are compared with the experimental ones, in order to validate the numerical model, and a good agreement is obtained.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2012-03-01
PAPER REVISED: 2012-06-12
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2012-11-16
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI120301205V
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2013, VOLUME 17, ISSUE 2, PAGES [489 - 496]
REFERENCES
  1. Veljić, D., Perović, M., Sedmak, A., Rakin, M., Bajić, N., Medjo, B., Dascau, H., Numerical Simulation of the Plunge Stage in Friction Stir Welding, Structural integrity and life, 11 (2011), 2, pp. 131-134
  2. Ivanovic, I.; Sedmak, A.; Milos, M.; Zivkovic, A.; Lazic, M., Numerical Study of Transient Three-dimensional Heat Conduction Problem with a Moving Heat Source, Thermal Science 15 (2011) No.1, pp. 257-266
  3. Berkovic M., Maksimović, S., Sedmak A., Analysis of Welded Joints by Applying the Finite Element Method, Structural Integrity and Life, Vol. 4, (2004), No. 2, pp. 75-83
  4. Zhang, H. W., Zhang, Z., Chen, J. T.,The Finite Element Simulation of the Friction Stir Welding Process, Materials Science and Engineering A, 403 (2005), 1-2, pp. 340-348
  5. Zhang, H. W., Zhang, Z., Numerical Modeling of Friction Stir Welding Process by using Rate-dependent Constitutive Model, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 23 (2007), 1, pp. 73-80
  6. Xu, S., Deng, X., Reynolds, A. P., Seidel, T. U., Finite Element Simulation of Material Flow in Friction Stir Welding, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 6 (2001), 3, pp. 191-193
  7. Assidi, M., Fourment, L., Guerdoux, S., Nelson, T., Friction Model for Friction Stir Welding Process Simulation: Calibrations from Welding Experiments, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 50 (2010), 2, pp. 143-155
  8. Song, M., Kovačević, R., Numerical and Experimental Study of the Heat Transfer Process in Friction Stir Welding, Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 217 (2003), 1, pp. 73-85
  9. Chen, C. M., Kovačević, R., Finite Element Modeling of Friction Stir Welding - Thermal and Thermomechanical Analysis, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 43 (2003), 13, pp. 1319-1326
  10. Chen, M. C., Kovačević, R., Joining of Al 6061 Alloy to AISI 1018 Steel by Combined Effects of Fusion and Solid State Welding, International Journal of machine Tools and Manufacture, 44 (2004), 11, pp. 1205-1214
  11. Dong, P., Lu, F., Hong, J. K., Cao, Z., Coupled Thermomechanical Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Process using Simplified Models, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 6 (2001), 5, pp. 281-287
  12. Perovic, M., Veljic, D., Rakin, M., Radovic, N., Sedmak, A., Bajic, N., Friction-stir Welding of High-Strength Aluminium Alloys and a Numerical Simulation of the Plunge Stage, Materials and Technology 46 (2012) 3, p. 105-111
  13. Mandal, S., Rice, J., Elmustafa, A. A., Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Plunge Stage in Friction Stir Welding, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 203 (2008), 1-3, pp. 411-419
  14. Veljić, D., Perović, M., Sedmak, A., Rakin, M., Trifunović, M., Bajić, N., Bajić, D., A Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Model of Friction Stir Welding, Thermal Science 16 (2012) No. 2 pp. 527-534
  15. Certificate conformity, ALCOA International, Inc, Approved Certificate No 47831, date 21.10.1990.
  16. ***, Aluminum 2024-T3 - ASM Material Data Sheet, asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=MA2024T3
  17. Johnson, R. G., Cook, W. H., A Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates and High Temperatures, Proceedings, 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, Hague, Netherlands, 1983, pp. 541-547
  18. Zhang, Z., Bie, J., Zhang, H., Effect of Traverse/Rotational Speed on Material Deformations and Temperature Distributions in Friction Stir Welding, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 24 (2008), 6, 907-913
  19. ***, Abaqus Inc., Analysis - User's Manual v.6.7, 2007
  20. Park, K., Development and Analysis of Ultrasonic Assisted Friction Stir Welding Process, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA, 2009
  21. Schmidt, H., Hattel, J., A Local Model for the Thermomechanical Conditions in Friction Stir Welding, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 13 (2005), 1, pp. 77-93
  22. Awang, M., Mucino, V., Energy Generation during Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Al 6061-T6 Plates, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 25 (2010), 1, pp. 167-174

© 2019 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence