THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

DECREASING THE EMISSIONS OF A PARTIALLY PREMIXED GASOLINE FUELED COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE BY MEANS OF INJECTION CHARACTERISTICS AND EGR

ABSTRACT
This paper is presented in order to elucidate some numerical investigations related to a partially premixed gasoline fuelled engine by means of three dimensional CFD code. Comparing with the diesel fuel, gasoline has lower soot emission because of its higher ignition delay. The application of double injection strategy reduces the maximum heat release rate and leads to the reduction of NOx emission. For validation of the model, the results for the mean in-cylinder pressure, H.R.R., NOx and soot emissions are compared with the corresponding experimental data and show good levels of agreement. The effects of injection characteristics such as, injection duration, spray angle, nozzle hole diameter, injected fuel temperature and EGR rate on combustion process and emission formation are investigated yielding the determination of the optimal point thereafter. The results indicated that optimization of injection characteristics leads to simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions with negligible change in IMEP.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2011-02-27
PAPER REVISED: 2011-09-22
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2011-09-26
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI110227099N
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2011, VOLUME 15, ISSUE 4, PAGES [939 - 952]
REFERENCES
  1. Desantes, J. M., Benajes, J., Molina, S. and Gonzalez, C. A. The modification of the fuel injection rate in heavy-duty diesel engines. Part 1: Effects on engine performance and emissions., J.Applied Thermal Engineering, 2004; 24:2701-14
  2. Bessonette, P. W., Schleyer, C.H., Duffy, K.P., Hardy, W.L and Liechty, M.P., "Effects of Fuel Property Changes on Heavy-Duty HCCI Combustion", SAE paper 2007-01-0191.
  3. Hardy, W. L. and Reitz R. D., "A Study of the Effects of High EGR, High Equivalence Ratio, and Mixing Time on Emissions Levels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for PCCI Combustion", SAE paper 2006-01-0026.
  4. Kimura, S., Aoki, O., Kitahara, Y. and Aiyoshizawa, E., "Ultra-Clean Combustion Technology Combining a Low-Temperature and Premixed Combustion Concept for Meeting Future Emission Standards", SAE paper 2001-01-0200.
  5. Ryan, T. W., Callahan, T. J. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel. , SAE Paper, NO. 961160, 1996.
  6. Dec, J. E. A computational study of the effects of low fuel loading and EGR on heat release rates and combustion limits in HCCI engines. , SAE Paper. NO. 2002-01-1309, 2002.
  7. Hosseini, V. W Stuart Neill, Wally L. Chippior. Influence of Engine Speed on HCCI Combustion Characteristics using Dual-Stage Autoignition Fuel., SAE Paper, NO. 2009-01-1107, 2009.
  8. Lee, C. S., Lee, K. H., and Kim, D. S. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Combustion Characteristics of Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engine With Dual Fuel. , Fuel 2003;82:553-60
  9. Kanda, T., Hakozaki, T., Uchimoto, T., Hatano, J., Kitayama, N., and Sono, H. PCCI Operation with Early Injection of Conventional Diesel Fuel. , SAE Paper, NO. 2005-01-0378, 2005.
  10. Ladommatos, N., Abdelhalim, S., and Zhao, H, "The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Combustion and Emissions," International Journal of Engine Research, 2000;107-126
  11. Musculus, M. P. B. Multiple Simultaneous Optical Diagnostic Imaging of Early-Injection Low Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine. , SAE Technical Paper Series, 2006-01-0079, 2006.
  12. Sun, Y. and Reitz, R.D. Modeling diesel engine NOx and soot reduction with optimized two-stage combustion. SAE paper 2006-01-0027.
  13. Hashizume, T., Miyamoto, T., Akagawa, H., and Tsujimura, K. 1998. Combustion and emission characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion. SAE paper 980505, 1998.
  14. Shimazaki, N., Tsurushima, T., and Nishimura, T. 2003. Dual mode combustion concept with premixed diesel combustion by direct injection near top dead center. SAE paper 2003-01-0742, 2003.
  15. Kalghatgi, G.T., Risberg, P., and Angstrom, H.-E. Advantages of fuels with high resistance to auto-ignition in late-injection, low-temperature, compression ignition combustion. SAE paper 2006-01-3385, 2006.
  16. Kalghatgi, G.T., Risberg, P., and Angstrom, H.-E. Partially pre-mixed auto-ignition of gasoline to attain low smoke and low NOx at high load in a compression ignition engine and comparison with a diesel fuel. SAE paper 2007-01-0006, 2007.
  17. Hanson .R, Splitter .D, Reitz .R, "Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions", SAE Paper 2009-01-1442, 2009.
  18. Han Z., Reits R.D. Turbulence modelling of internal combustion engine using RNG k-ε models. , Combustion Science and Technique, Vol.106. pp. 267-295, 1995
  19. Beale, J.C., and Reitz, R.D. Modeling Spray Atomization with the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh- Taylor Hybrid Model. Atomization and Sprays, 1999;9:623-50.
  20. O'Rourke, P.J. and Amsden, A.A. 1996. A particle numerical model for wall film dynamics in port-injected engines. SAE paper 961961.
  21. Dukowicz, J.K. Quasi-Steady Droplet Phase Change In the Presence of Convection. Informal Report Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, LA7997-MS, 1979.
  22. AVL FIRE User manual V.8.5; 2006.
  23. Zeldovich, Y. B., Sadovnikov, P. Y. and Frank Kamenetskii, D. A. Oxidation of Nitrogen in Combustion., Translation by M. Shelef, Academy of Sciences of USSR, Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
  24. Hiroyasu, H. and Kadota, T. 1976. Models for combustion and formation of nitric oxide and soot in DI diesel engines. SAE paper 760129.
  25. Kong, S.-C., Sun, Y., and Reitz, R. D. Modeling Diesel Spray Flame Lift-Off, Sooting Tendency and NOx Emissions Using Detailed Chemistry with Phenomenological Soot Model. ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Vol. 129, pp. 245-251, 2007
  26. Zhengbai Liu and Xinqun Gui "Investigation of Effects of Piston Bowl and Fuel Injector Offsets on Combustion and Emissions in D.I. Diesel Engines" International Truck and Engine Corp. SAE paper 2002-01-1748.

© 2019 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence