**ABSTRACT**

To enhance the hydrothermal performance of cold plates, this study constructs a topology optimization framework that integrates conjugate heat transfer principles, aiming to maximize heat generation and minimize fluid flow dissipation. The robustness of the design is improved through the application of projection and density filtering techniques, with the projection intensity value incrementally increased via a parameter scanning method to bolster numerical convergence. The inlet and outlet distribution of the cold plate, aligned along its centerline, is determined through various target weight combinations, generating clear, continuous layouts. To further substantiate the effectiveness of the optimized configuration, a topology optimization design employing an objective function weighting factor of 0.7:0.3 is chosen to create the three-dimensional geometry of the cold plate. A parallel flow channel design, maintaining an identical fluid volume fraction and heat transfer boundary length, is introduced for comparative analysis. Moreover, performance indices such as surface temperature, pressure drop across the channel, average Nusselt number, and thermal resistance are assessed for two cold plates under varying inlet velocities. Both simulations and experiments indicate that the hydrothermal performance of the developed topological structure significantly surpasses that of the conventional parallel channel design, a disparity that amplifies with increasing inlet velocities.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2024-03-24

PAPER REVISED: 2024-07-14

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2024-07-22

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2024-08-31

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