## THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

### Thermal Science - Online First

online first only
### The adoption of novel cooling liquids for enhancing heat transfer performance of three-dimensional integrated circuits with embedded micro-channel

**ABSTRACT**

The nanofluids (including MWCNT based nanofluid and SWCNT based nanofluid) and liquid metal Ga68In20Sn12 are proposed to replace the conventional water as cooling liquid of micro-channel for enhancing heat transfer performance of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3-D ICs) in this paper. An equivalent thermal model of 3-D ICs with integrated micro-channel is established to investigate the heat transfer performances for using different cooling liquids. The results show that the steady-state temperature for MWCNT based nanofluid, SWCNT based nanofluid and Ga68In20Sn12 as cooling liquids can be reduced over 25.698%, 28.771% and 35.735% than the conventional water scheme in a four-layers stacked chip, respectively. Besides, it is found that the steady-state temperature of all die layer in 3-D ICs can be further reduced by increasing the micro-channel size and flow velocity of cooling liquid. Therefore, the proposed novel materials (i.e., nanofluids and Ga68In20Sn12) as cooling liquids have excellent application prospect in solving thermal problems of 3-D ICs.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2024-04-14

PAPER REVISED: 2024-05-20

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2024-05-26

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2024-08-18

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