**ABSTRACT**

This paper investigates turbulence characteristics and the parameters controlling the turbulent incompressible flow of a double-sided lid-driven cavity. The effects of varying Reynolds numbers (1×104 ≤ Re ≤ 2×105), speed ratios (0.05 ≤ S ≤ 1.0), and aspect ratios (0.5 ≤ K ≤ 2.0) on the turbulent quantities, such as kinetic energy (k), dissipation (ε), turbulent viscosity (νt) are analyzed. The k-ε turbulence model equations are solved using the FVM-based SIMPLE algorithm. Taguchi's approach uses an L16 orthogonal array to determine the optimal cavity parameters. The significance of the considered factors is estimated using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. The present study reveals that the turbulent quantities are significantly reduced by increasing the aspect ratio, speed ratio, and Reynolds number. Taguchi analysis suggests that the optimal fluid flow rate is attained by combining S = 0.05, K = 0.5, and Re = 2×105. The ANOVA analysis shows the significant percentage contribution for parameters S and Re, which are approximately 62.29% and 30.21%, respectively. From the regression equation, νt,avg has a positive relationship with both K and Re but a negative relationship with S.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2023-09-10

PAPER REVISED: 2024-02-05

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2024-02-07

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2024-03-10

- Hussien, A.A., W. Al-Kouz, M. El Hassan, A.A. Janvekar, and A.J. Chamkha, A review of flow and heat transfer in cavities and their applications, European Physical Journal Plus, 136 (2021), 4.
- Alleborn, N., H. Raszillier, and F. Durst, Lid-driven cavity with heat and mass transport, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 42 (1999), 5, pp. 833-853.
- Hammami, F., B. Souayeh, N. Ben-Cheikh, and B. Ben-Beya, Computational analysis of fluid flow due to a two-sided lid driven cavity with a circular cylinder, Computers and Fluids, 156 (2017), , pp. 317-328.
- Shankar, P.N., and M.D. Deshpande, Fluid mechanics in the driven cavity, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 32 (2000), , pp. 93-136.
- Ghia, U., K.N. Ghia, and C.T. Shin, High-Re solutions for incompressible flow using the Navier-Stokes equations and a multigrid method, Journal of Computational Physics, 48 (1982), 3, pp. 387-411.
- Erturk, E., T.C. Corke, and C. Gökçöl, Numerical solutions of 2-D steady incompressible driven cavity flow at high Reynolds numbers, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 48 (2005), 7, pp. 747-774.
- Kuhlmann, H.C., M. Wanschura, and H.J. Rath, Flow in two-sided lid-driven cavities: Non-uniqueness, instabilities, and cellular structures, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 336 (1997), , pp. 267-299.
- Arun, S., A. Satheesh, and A.J. Chamkha, Numerical Analysis of Double-Diffusive Natural Convection in Shallow and Deep Open-Ended Cavities Using Lattice Boltzmann Method, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 45 (2020), 2, pp. 861-876.
- Arun, S., and A. Satheesh, Mesoscopic analysis of MHD double diffusive natural convection and entropy generation in an enclosure filled with liquid metal, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 95 (2019), , pp. 155-173.
- Mohan, C.G., and A. Satheesh, Computational investigation of double-diffusive mixed convective flow in an enclosed square cavity with soret effect, Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, 8 (2017), .
- Arun, S., and A. Satheesh, Analysis of flow behaviour in a two sided lid driven cavity using lattice boltzmann technique, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 54 (2015), 4, pp. 795-806.
- Gaskell, P.H., F. Gürcan, M.D. Savage, and H.M. Thompson, Stokes flow in a double-lid-driven cavity with free surface side walls, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 212 (1998), 5, pp. 387-403.
- Albensoeder, S., H.C. Kuhlmann, and H.J. Rath, Multiplicity of steady two-dimensional flows in two-sided lid-driven cavities, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, 14 (2001), 4, pp. 223-241.
- Chen, K.T., C.C. Tsai, W.J. Luo, and C.N. Chen, Multiplicity of steady solutions in a two-sided lid-driven cavity with different aspect ratios, Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, 27 (2013), 6, pp. 767-776.
- Hammami, F., N. Ben-Cheikh, B. Ben-Beya, B. Souayeh, N. Ben-Cheikh, and B. Ben-Beya, Combined effects of the velocity and the aspect ratios on the bifurcation phenomena in a two-sided lid- driven cavity flow, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 24 (2014), 4, pp. 943-962.
- Mendu, S.S., and P.K. Das, Flow of power-law fluids in a cavity driven by the motion of two facing lids - A simulation by lattice Boltzmann method, Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 175-176 (2012), , pp. 10-24.
- Samantaray, D., and M.K. Das, High Reynolds number incompressible turbulent flow inside a lid-driven cavity with multiple aspect ratios, Physics of Fluids, 30 (2018), 7.
- Patel, D.K., M.K. Das, and S. Roy, LES of incompressible turbulent flow inside a cubical cavity driven by two parallel lids moving in opposite direction, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 67 (2013), , pp. 1039-1053.
- Yusof, S.N.A., Y. Asako, N.A.C. Sidik, S.B. Mohamed, and W.M.A.A. Japar, A short review on rans turbulence models, CFD Letters, 12 (2020), 11, pp. 83-96.
- Abdollahzadeh, M., M. Esmaeilpour, R. Vizinho, A. Younesi, and J.C. Pàscoa, Assessment of RANS turbulence models for numerical study of laminar-turbulent transition in convection heat transfer, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 115 (2017), , pp. 1288-1308.
- Milani Shirvan, K., R. Ellahi, S. Mirzakhanlari, and M. Mamourian, Enhancement of heat transfer and heat exchanger effectiveness in a double pipe heat exchanger filled with porous media: Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis of turbulent fluid flow, Applied Thermal Engineering, 109 (2016), , pp. 761-774.
- Samantaray, D., and M.K. Das, Nature of turbulence inside a cubical lid-driven cavity: Effect of Reynolds number, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 80 (2019), October, pp. 108498.
- Martin, R., M. Soria, I. Rodriguez, and O. Lehmkuhl, On the Flow and Passive Noise Control of an Open Cavity at Re = 5000, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 108 (2022), 1, pp. 123-148.
- Moolya, S., and S. Anbalgan, Optimization of the effect of Prandtl number, inclination angle, magnetic field, and Richardson number on double-diffusive mixed convection flow in a rectangular domain, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 126 (2021), 105358, pp. 1-14.
- Alinejad, J., and J.A. Esfahani, Taguchi design of three dimensional simulations for optimization of turbulent mixed convection in a cavity, Meccanica, 52 (2017), 4-5, pp. 925-938.
- Sobhani, M., and H. Ajam, Taguchi optimization for natural convection heat transfer of Al2O3 nanofluid in a partially heated cavity using LBM, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 138 (2019), 2, pp. 889-904.
- Shirvan, K.M., M. Mamourian, and R. Ellahi, Numerical investigation and optimization of mixed convection in ventilated square cavity filled with nanofluid of different inlet and outlet port, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 27 (2017), 9, pp. 2053-2069.
- Milani Shirvan, K., H.F. Öztop, and K. Al-Salem, Mixed magnetohydrodynamic convection in a Cu-water-nanofluid-filled ventilated square cavity using the Taguchi method: A numerical investigation and optimization, European Physical Journal Plus, 132 (2017), 5.
- Alinejad, J., and K. Fallah, Taguchi optimization approach for three-dimensional nanofluid natural convection in a transformable enclosure, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 31 (2017), 1, pp. 211-217.
- Biswas, G., and V. Eswaran, Turbulent flows: fundamentals, experiments and modeling, (2002).
- Launder, B.E., and D.B. Spalding, The Numerical Computation of Turbulent Flows, Pergamon Press, Ltd, (1983).
- Nallasamy, M., Turbulence models and their applications to the prediction of internal flows: A review, Computers and Fluids, 15 (1987), 2, pp. 151-194.
- Patankar, S. V., V.S. Pratap, and D.B. Spalding, Prediction of Turbulent Flow in Curved Pipes, 67 (1975), , pp. 583-595.
- Moolya, S., and A. Satheesh, Role of magnetic field and cavity inclination on double diffusive mixed convection in rectangular enclosed domain, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 118 (2020), , pp. 104814.
- Samantaray, D., M.K. Das, and D.K. Patel, Turbulence characteristics of high Reynolds number flow inside a three-dimensional cubic lid-driven cavity, European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids, 84 (2020), , pp. 23-39.
- Naghian, M., M. Lashkarbolok, and E. Jabbari, Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows Using a Least Squares Based Meshless Method, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 15 (2017), 1, pp. 77-87.