International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Vertical concentration distributions of atmospheric particulates in typical seasons of winter and summer during working and non-working days: A case study of high-rise buildings

It is important to understand the vertical distribution characteristics of outdoor particulates concentration in typical seasons of winter and summer when people's living spaces are getting higher and higher above the ground. The different heights of floors (1st, 7th, 11th, 17th, and 27th) of a high-rise building in Xi'an at 8:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00, and 22:00, respectively, were tested and analyzed in this paper. The results showed that the concentrations on non-working days were much lower than that on working day sat different times and on different floors, and the concentrations of particulates were relatively low in summer. The particulates reached the highestat 12:00 in summer, with the average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0were37.3, 31.6, and 29.4 μg/m3.While reached the highest at 15:00 in winter, with the average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0were 82.4, 64.8, and 57.7 μg/m3. The distribution of atmospheric environment in Xi'an is mainly dominated by small particulates. The particle sizes of low floors are mainly range from 1.0 to 2.5 μm, and the high floors are less than 1.0μm.With the increase of floors and time, PM1.0/PM2.5and PM2.5/PM10show a trend of first decreasing and then increasing on working days, while PM1.0/PM2.5and PM2.5/PM10show a trend of first increasing, then decreasing and next increasing on non-working days. In addition, outdoor meteorological parameters will also have a certain impact on particulates concentration distribution. It provides reference values for controlling the particulates concentration in high-rise buildings.
PAPER REVISED: 2023-12-20
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2023-12-27
  1. He, B., et al., Correction of direction reduction factors of extreme wind speed considering the Ekman spiral in the wind load estimation of super high-rise buildings with heights of 400-800 m, The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 32 (2023) pp. e2004.
  2. Liu, C. X., et al., Determination of pressure difference coefficient of shuttle elevator doors in super high-rise buildings under stack effect, Cancer Management and Research, 15 (2023) pp. 131-145.
  3. Zhang, Y. T., et al., A spectral-velocity-based combination-type earthquake intensity measure for super high-rise buildings, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16 (2018) pp. 643-677.
  4. Zhang, X., et al., Comparison of the Application of Three Methods for the Determination of Outdoor PM2.5 Design Concentrations for Fresh Air Filtration Systems in China, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (2022) pp. 16537.
  5. Song, H., et al., Concentration Characteristics and Correlations with Other Pollutants of Atmospheric Particulate Matter As Affected by Relevant Policies, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20 (2023) pp. 1051.
  6. Brook, R. D., et al., Excess Global Blood Pressure Associated With Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution Levels Exceeding World Health Organization Guidelines, Journal of the American Heart Association, 12 (2023) pp. e029206.
  7. Zhang, X., et al., Modifying the Fiber Structure and Filtration Performance of Polyester Materials Based on Two Different Preparation Methods, Langmuir, 39 (2023), pp. 3502-3511.
  8. Wei, T., et al., Operational parameters impact on spatial and temporal distribution and multifractal characteristics of particulate matter concentration under the sink effect, Chemical Engineering Science, 269 (2023), pp. 118447.
  9. Shen, Y. W., et al., Distribution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Antimony in Atmospheric Particulates in a Northern City of China, Chemical Research in Chinese Universities, 39 (2023), pp. 465-471.
  10. Mi, K., et al., Spatiotemporal characteristics of PM2.5 and its associated gas pollutants, a case in China, Sustainable Cities and Society, 45 (2019), pp. 287-295.
  11. Zhang, X., et al., Variation of Particulate Matter and Its Correlation with Other Air Pollutants in Xi`an, China, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 30 (2021), pp. 3357-3364.
  12. Zhang, X., et al., Spatiotemporal Distribution of PM2.5 and Its Correlation with Other Air Pollutants in Winter During 2016~2018 in Xi'an, China, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 30 (2021), pp. 1457-1464.
  13. Tian, Y. L., et al., Characteristics of atmospheric pollution and the impacts of environmental management over a megacity, northwestern China, Urban Climate, 42 (2022), pp. 101114.
  14. Zhang, X., et al., Research on outdoor design PM2.5 concentration for fresh air filtration systems based on mathematical inductions, Journal of Building Engineering, 34 (2021), pp. 101883.
  15. Lancia, A., et al., Aerobiological Monitoring in an Indoor Occupational Setting Using a Real-Time Bioaerosol Sampler, Atmosphere, 14 (2023), pp. 118.
  16. Sun, Y. W., et al., Atmospheric environment monitoring technology and equipment in China: A review and outlook, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 123 (2023), pp. 41-53.
  17. Ge, X. R., et al., Impact of interannual weather variation on ammonia emissions and concentrations in Germany, Agricultural and forest meteorology, 334 (2023), pp. 109432.
  18. Yang, M., et al., Geo-Environmental Factors'Influence on the Prevalence and Distribution of Dental Fluorosis: Evidence from Dali County, Northwest China, Sustainability, 15 (2023), pp. 1871.
  19. Zhou, F. R., et al., Estimating spatio-temporal variability of aerosol pollution in Yunnan Province, China, Atmospheric Pollution Research, 13 (2022), pp. 101450.
  20. Zhang, X., et al., Vertical Distribution Characteristics of Outdoor Particles Concentrations in High-Rise Buildings, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 30 (2021), pp. 1913-1922.
  21. NIU, B. W., et al., Vertical distribution characteristics of outdoor particulate matter concentration in high-rise buildings during working days and non-working days, in: E3S Web of Conferences, ROOMVENT 2022, 356, (2022), PP. 04033.
  22. GB/T18883-2002. Indoor air quality standard. China Environmental Science Press. 2002.
  23. GB3095-2012. Ambient air quality standards. China Environmental Science Press. 2012.
  24. Liu, B. M., et al., The relationship between atmospheric boundary layer and temperature inversion layer and their aerosol capture capabilities, Atmospheric Research, 271 (2022), pp. 106121.
  25. Wang, J., et al., Study on the Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Particulate Matter Pollution in Coal Production Cities in China, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (2022) pp. 3228.
  26. Nie, Y., et al., Clean and low-carbon heating in the building sector of China: 10-Year development review and policy implications, Energy Policy, 179 (2023) pp. 113659.
  27. Sun, J. S., et al., Optimizing China's energy consumption structure under energy and carbon constraints, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 47 (2018), pp. 57-72.
  28. Šarić, A., et al., The Role of Intersection Geometry in Urban Air Pollution Management, Sustainability, 15 (2023) pp. 5234.
  29. Wu, Z. T., et al., Attributable risk and economic cost of hospital admissions for mental disorders due to PM2.5 in Beijing, Science of The Total Environment, 718 (2020), pp. 137274.
  30. Leão, M. L. P., et al., Effect of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) on health indicators: climate change scenarios in a Brazilian metropolis, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 45 (2023), pp. 2229-2240.
  31. Katow, H., Ishikawa, K. L., Eigenmode analysis of the multiple temperature model: spectrum properties, hierarchical structures, and temperature inversion, Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing, 129 (2023) pp. 165.
  32. Zhang, X., et al., Establishment of air fiber filtration model based on fractal theory and analysis of filtration performances, Materials Today Communications, 34 (2023), pp. 105301.
  33. Xu, R., et al., Extreme temperature events, fine particulate matter, and myocardial infarction mortality, Circulation, 148 (2023), pp. 312-323.
  34. Strouhal, J., et al., CFD modelling of an initial powdery layer on cooled tubular surfaces, Heat and Mass Transfer, (2023).
  35. Zhang, X., et al., Fractal approach to concentration distribution of atmospheric fine particle sizes, Thermal science, 25 (2021), pp. 1337-1343.
  36. Dai, H. B., et al., Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of PM2.5 Concentrations in China Based on Multiple Sources of Data and LUR-GBM during 2016-2021, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19 (2022) pp. 6292.
  37. Spiechowicz, J., et al., Diffusion Coefficient of a Brownian Particle in Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium: Einstein Model and Beyond, Entropy, 25 (2023) pp. 42.
  38. Yang, B., et al., Effects of Low‐Level Jets on Near‐Surface Turbulence and Wind Direction Changes in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128 (2023) pp. e2022JD037657.