International Scientific Journal


Heat and cooling stands out with the great potential in decarbonisation since they have a large share in the final energy consumption. Power-to-heat technologies may contribute to the heat sector decarbonisation as well as the integration of renewables if they are sufficiently flexible. They are also shown to have a good effect on the system costs. This work will analyse the potential of seawater heat pump system for the utilization of high share of electricity production from the renewables. The Old City of Dubrovnik is selected as a case study because of its specific situation. A large number of the outdoor units are not well approved by UNESCO since the Old City is under the protection of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre. The results of the study showed that the combination of wind and solar electricity production can cover 67% of load for stand-alone seawater heat pump system based on hourly time step. Utilization of renewable electricity generation, for this case, resulted in 433.71 tCO2/y emission reduction. System based on 10 minutes time step gave poorer results by 6%. System with the additional energy storage gained best results in the case of combined wind and solar electricity generation, as well. It resulted in storage capacity reduction by 78% ac-cording to the case of solar electricity generation and by 60% according to the wind electricity generation. Battery energy storage resulted in 40 times lower volume and 13 times higher investment costs and levelised cost of heat in comparison to the thermal energy storage.
PAPER REVISED: 2020-05-23
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2020-05-26
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2020, VOLUME 24, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [3589 - 3600]
  1. ***, European Parlament/European Directive 2012/27 EU,
  2. EU, Energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency (Text with EEA relevance), Official Journal of the European Union, 156 (2018), 75, pp. 1-17
  3. Popa, V., et al., Thermo-Economic Analysis of an Air-to-Water Heat Pump, Energy Procedia, 85 (2016), pp. 408-415
  4. Sayegh, M.A., et al., Heat pump placement, connection and operational modes in European district heating, Energy and Buildings, 166 (2018), pp. 122-144
  5. Rämä, M., Wahlroos, M., Introduction of new decentralised renewable heat supply in an existing district heating system, Energy, 154 (2018), pp. 68-79
  6. Fischer, D., Madani, H., On heat pumps in smart grids: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70 (2017), pp. 342-357
  7. Lund, H. et al., 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH). Integrating smart thermal grids into future sustainable energy systems., Energy, 68 (2014), pp. 1-11
  8. Baccino, G. et al., Energy and environmental analysis of an open-loop ground-water heat pump system in an urban area, Thermal Science, 14 (2010), 3, pp. 693-706
  9. Gong, Y. et al, Development of a compression-absorption heat pump system for utilizing low temperature, Thermal Science, 23 (2019), 2, pp. 791-799
  10. Levihn, F., CHP and heat pumps to balance renewable power production: Lessons from the district heating network in Stockholm, Energy, 137 (2017), pp. 670-678
  11. Blarke, M.B., Lund, H., Large-scale heat pumps in sustainable energy systems : system and project perspectives, Thermal Science, 11 (2007), 3, pp. 143-152
  12. Lauka, D., et al., Heat pumps integration trends in district heating networks of the Baltic States, Procedia Computer Science, 52 (2015), 1, pp. 835-842
  13. Shakir, Y., et al., Numerical simulation of a heat pump assisted regenerative solar still with PCM heat storage, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), pp. 411-418
  14. Testi, D., et al., Cost-optimal Sizing of Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems for the Heating and Cooling Needs of a Nearly Zero-Energy Building: The Case Study of a Farm Hostel in Italy, Energy Procedia, 91 (2016), pp. 528-536
  15. Niederhäuser, E.L., et al., Novel Approach for Heating/Cooling Systems for Buildings Based on Photovoltaic-heat Pump: Concept and Evaluation, Energy Procedia, 70 (2015), pp. 480-485
  16. Di Liddo, P., et al., Application of optimization procedure to the management of renewable based household heating & cooling systems, Energy Procedia, 62 (2014), pp. 329-336
  17. Schellenberg, C., et al., Operational optimisation of a heat pump system with sensible thermal energy storage using genetic algrithm, Thermal Science, 22 (2020), 5, pp. 2189-2202
  18. Niederhäuser, E.L., et al., New Innovative Solar Heating System (Cooling/Heating) Production, Energy Procedia, 70 (2015), pp. 293-299
  19. Guo, X., et al., Volume design of the heat storage tank of solar assisted water-source heat pump space heating system, Procedia Engineering, 205 (2017), pp. 2691-2697
  20. Østergaard, P.A., Andersen, A.N., Economic feasibility of booster heat pumps in heat pump-based district heating systems, Energy, 155 (2018), pp. 921-929
  21. Tamasauskas, J., et al., An analysis of the impact of heat pump systems on load matching and grid interaction in the Canadian context, Energy Procedia, 78 (2015), pp. 2124-2129
  22. Ellerbrok, C., Potentials of demand side management using heat pumps with building mass as a thermal storage, Energy Procedia, 46 (2014), 0, pp. 214-219
  23. Ban, M., et al., The role of cool thermal energy storage (CTES) in the integration of renewable energy sources (RES) and peak load reduction, Energy, 48 (2012), 1, pp. 108-117
  24. Dominković, D.F., Krajačić, G., District cooling versus individual cooling in urban energy systems: The impact of district energy share in cities on the optimal storage sizing, Energies, 12 (2019), 3
  25. Carmo, C., et al., Smart Grid enabled heat pumps: An empirical platform for investigating how residential heat pumps can support largescale integration of intermittent renewables, Energy Procedia, 61 (2014), pp. 1695-1698
  26. Baik, Y.J., et al., Potential to enhance performance of seawater-source heat pump by series operation, Renewable Energy, 65 (2014), pp. 236-244
  27. Zhen, L., et al., District cooling and heating with seawater as heat source and sink in Dalian, China, Renewable Energy, 32 (2007), 15, pp. 2603-2616
  28. Marques, A.C.V., Dos Santos Oliveira, W., Technological forecasting: Heat pumps and the synergy with renewable energy, Energy Procedia, 48 (2014), pp. 1650-1657
  29. ***, International Energy Agency/The Future of Cooling, http//
  30. ***, International Energy Agency/The Future of Cooling in China suistainable air conditioning, http//
  31. Averfalk, H., et al., Large heat pumps in Swedish district heating systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 79 (2017), pp. 1275-1284
  32. Jia, X.; Duanmu, L., Shu, H., Multifactor analysis on beach well infiltration intake system for seawater source heat pump, Energy and Buildings, 154 (2017), pp. 244-253
  33. Lund, R., Persson, U., Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark, Energy, 110 (2016), pp. 129-138
  34. Haiwen, S., et al., Quasi-dynamic energy-saving judgment of electric-driven seawater source heat pump district heating system over boiler house district heating system, Energy and Buildings, 42 (2010), 12, pp. 2424-2430
  35. Zheng, X., et al., Seepage and heat transfer modeling on beach well infiltration intake system in seawater source heat pump, Energy and Buildings, 68 (2014), pp. 147-155
  36. Krstulović, V., et al., Study of the optimal solution of the cooling and heating system in the Old city of Dubrovnik, Institute Hrvoje Požar, Zagreb, Croatia, 2018
  37. Schibuola, L., Scarpa, M., Experimental analysis of the performances of a surface water source heat pump, Energy and Buildings, 113 (2016), pp. 182-188
  38. Hiawen, S., et al., Energy Efficiency Enhancement Potential of the Heat Pump Unit in a Seawater Source Heat Pump District Heating System, Procedia Engineering, 146 (2016), pp. 134-138
  39. Falkoni, A., Krajačić, G., Linear correlation and regression between the meteorological data and the electricity demand of the Dubrovnik region in a short-term scale, Thermal Science, 20 (2016), 4, pp. 1073-1089
  40. Šare, A., et al., The integration of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles into the power system of the Dubrovnik region, Energy, Sustainability and Society, 5 (2015), 1
  41. ***, Ministry of Environment and Energy/Energy in Croatia - Annual Energy Report 2018,

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence