International Scientific Journal


Kindergartens are probably the very first public buildings we actively use in our lives. Therefore, they can be considered as the physical structures that are providing for the very important educational and social function. Additionally, they can also be considered as the specific learning tool for future generations where they can encounter the ideas of green and energy-efficient buildings. One of the results of the research project “Energy efficiency in public buildings” has been formulated through the development of Serbian National Typology of Kindergartens which was conceived as a specific tool that can be used for improving this portion of building stock. The paper presents the methodology for identification of typical kindergarten buildings, covering various construction periods, building sizes and illustrates the type of analysis performed for model representatives. The potential for energy upgrades covering physical structure, installed technological systems, as well as expected impact on energy performance, has been estimated. The study presents results based on the analysis of the data derived from the National Typology, stressing out that energy retrofits of large and medium-sized kindergartens built during the 1970s and 1980s should be the primary focus of refurbishment activities. Accounting for almost 60% of total buildings and 69.59% of heated area, they are responsible for 75.97% of energy demands. Estimated energy savings of more than 60% indicate the effectiveness of their retrofit. The paper also presents the potential uses of National Typology as a retrofit tool on various scales, from single-building considerations to a strategic approach at the national level.
PAPER REVISED: 2020-06-01
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2020-06-10
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2020, VOLUME 24, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [3521 - 3532]
  1. Rovers, R., Existing buildings, a hidden resource, ready for mining" in Joint Workshop on Sustainable Buildings: Towards Sustainable Use of Building Stock, OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate, Tokyo, Japan, 2004
  2. ***, Directive 2012/27/EU of the European parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC, Official Journal of the European Union 14.11.2012, L 315/1.
  3. Atanasiu B. et al., Europe's buildings under the microscope: A country-by-country review of the energy performance of buildings, Buildings Performance Institute Europe (BPIE), 2011.
  4. Ruparathna R., et al., Improving the energy efficiency of the existing building stock: A critical review of commercial and institutional buildings, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53 (2016), pp.1032-1045
  5. Azar E. and Menassa C.C., A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks, Energy Policy, 67 (2014), pp.459-472, 2014.
  6. Petrović J. et al., Energy indicators for public buildings in autonomous province of Vojvodina with focus on healthcare, educational and administrative buildings, Thermal Science, 20 (2016), Issue Supplement 2, pp S331 - S342
  7. Lizana, J. et al., Energy assessment method towards low-carbon energy schools, Energy, 159 (2018), pp 310-326, 2018.
  8. Jovanović M.P. et al., Assessing the sustainability of Serbian school buildings by analyse and synthesis parameters under information deficiency method, Thermal Science, 22 (2018), Issue Supplement 4, pp S1271 - S1283
  9. Turanjanin V. et al., Indoor CO2 measurements in Serbian schools and ventilation rate calculation, Energy, 77 (2014), pp 290-296
  10. Josijević M.M., et al., A method to estimate savings of led lighting installation in public buildings: the case study of secondary schools in Serbia, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), 6, pp 2931 - 2943
  11. Cole, L., The Teaching Green School Building: a framework for linking architecture and environmental education, Environmental Education Research, 20 (2014), 6, pp 836-857
  12. Izadpanahi, P. et al., Greenhouse affect: the relationship between the sustainable design of schools and children's environmental attitudes, Environmental Education Research, 23 (2017), Issue 7, pp 901-917
  13. Petrović Bećirović S. and Vasić M., Energy-efficient refurbishment of public buildings in Serbia, REHVA Journal, Dec (2012) pp 40-44
  14. Ballarini, I. et al., Use of reference buildings to assess the energy saving potentials of the residential building stock: The experience of TABULA project, Energy Policy, 68 (May 2014), pp 273-284
  15. Brøgger M. and Wittchen K.B., Estimating the energy-saving potential in national building stocks - A methodology review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82 (2018), pp 1489-1496
  16. Jovanovic Popovic, M. et al., National Typology of Residential Buildings in Serbia, Belgrade: University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture and GIZ, Belgrade, Serbia, 2013
  17. Jovanović Popović M., et al., School and Kindergarten Buildings / A methodological framework for the formulation of typology and the improvement of energy efficiency, GIZ-Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ GmbH, Belgrade, Serbia, 2018
  18. Jovanović Popović M., et al., National Typology of School Buildings in Serbia, GIZ-Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ GmbH Belgrade, Serbia, 2018
  19. Ćuković Ignjatović N. et al., Typology of school buildings in Serbia: a tool for sustainable energy refurbishment, Conference proceedings, 5th International Academic Conference on Places and Technologies, Belgrade, Serbia, 2018, pp 357-363.
  20. Jovanović Popović M., et al., National Typology of Kindergartens in Serbia, GIZ-Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ GmbH Belgrade, Serbia, 2018
  21. Šuman, N. et al., Approach to refurbishment of timber preschool buildings with a view on energy and economic efficiency, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 25 (2019), 1, pp 27-40

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence