International Scientific Journal


Climate comfort and its variability are of great importance to human comfort, health and well-being, as humans may suffer dire consequences when they are exposed to the environments with heat or cold stress. The climate comfort index represented the integrated effects of meteorological variables on the human thermal sensation. The annual and seasonal climate comfort index values were calculated based on the monthly data of the temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed from 591 stations in China between 1966 and 2016. Using the empirical orthogonal function analysis, the dominant modes of climate comfort index variations were extracted by the first two modes, which accounted for more than 50% of the total variance. The results showed that the annual and seasonal climate comfort index values displayed a latitudinal gradient, and increased towards the south except for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The most frequently perceived thermal sensations were labeled as "cold", "comfortable", "cold" and "extremely cold" conditions from spring to winter, respectively. For annual and seasonal climate comfort index, the consistent increasing trend was detected in most regions of China in the first mode. The sensitive areas were mainly located in the central, eastern and southern China in winter, while in the northern and western China in summer. In the second mode, the fluctuations between upward and downward trends were observed. The sensitive areas were located in the central China in summer, in the southwestern and southern China in autumn, and in the northern China in winter. This study provides the important information for the improvement of human settlement comfort.
PAPER REVISED: 2019-08-01
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2019-08-08
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2020, VOLUME 24, ISSUE Issue 4, PAGES [2445 - 2453]
  1. Freitas, C. R., et al., A Comprehensive Catalogue and Classification of Human Thermal Climate Indices, International Journal of Biometeorology, 59 (2015), 1, pp. 109-120
  2. Brunt, D., Climate and Human Comfort, Nature, 155 (1945), May, pp. 559-564
  3. Zare, S., et al, Comparing Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) with selected thermal indices/environmental parameters during 12 months of the year, Weather Climate Extreme, 19 (2018), Mar., pp. 49-57
  4. Cheung, P. K., et al, Improved Assessment of Outdoor Thermal Comfort: 1-Hour Acceptable Temperature Range, Building and Environment, 151 (2017), Mar., pp. 303-317
  5. Shakoor, A., et al., Effects of Climate Change Process on Comfort Climate in Shiraz Station, Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 5 (2008), 4, pp. 269-276
  6. Mochida, A., et al, Prediction of Wind Environment and Thermal Comfort at Pedestrian Level in Urban Area, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 96 (2008), 10-11, pp. 1498-1527
  7. Xu, Y. Q., et al., Study on Differences of Temperature and Humidity and Vertical Distribution of Hu-man Comfort between City and Countryside of Heilongjiang Province in Summer, Meteorological and Environmental Research, 5 (2014), 2, pp. 41-44
  8. Xiong, J., et al, Effects of Temperature Steps on Human Health and Thermal Comfort, Building and Environment, 94 (2015), Dec., pp. 144-154
  9. Buddhi, P., et al., The Influence of Wind Speed on New Particle Formation Events in an Urban Environment, Atmospheric Research, 215 (2018), Jan., pp. 37-41
  10. Terjun, W. H., Physiologic Climates of the Contentious United States: Bio Climatic Classification Based on Man, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 5 (1996), 1, pp. 141-179
  11. Wang, C. Z., et al., Nonlinear Relationship between Extreme Temperature and Mortality in Different Temperature Zones: a Systematic Study of 122 Communities Across the Mainland of China, Science of the Total Environment, 586 (2017), May, pp. 96-106
  12. Ibrahim, H. M., et al., Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Soil Water Storage under Dryland Agriculture at the Watershed Scale, Journal of Hydrology, 404 (2011), 3-4, pp. 186-97
  13. Li, Q., et al., A Global Weighted Mean Temperature Model Based on Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis, Advances in Space Research, 61 (2018), 6, pp. 1398-1411
  14. Richman, M. B., et al., Relationship between the Definition of the Hyperplane width to the Fidelity of Principal Component Loading Patterns, Journal of Climate, 12 (1999), 6, pp. 1557-1576
  15. Wypych, A., et al., Spatial and Temporal Variability of the Frost-Free Season in Central Europe and its Circulation Background, International Journal of Climatology, 37 (2017), 8, pp. 3340-3352
  16. Wu, F. F., et al., Regional and Seasonal Variations of Outdoor Thermal Comfort in China from 1966 to 2016, Science of the Total Environment, 665 (2019), May, pp. 1003-1016
  17. Oh, J., et al., Real-Time Forecasting of Wave Heights Using EOF-Wavelet-Neural Network Hybrid Model, Ocean Engineering, 150 (2018), Feb., pp. 48-59
  18. Yang, X. H., et al., Chaos Gray-Coded Genetic Algorithm and its Application for Pollution Source Identifications in Convection-Diffusion Equation, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 13 (2008), 8, pp. 1676-1688
  19. Jolliffe, I. T., Principal Component Analysis, 2nd ed., Springer, New York, USA, 2002, pp. 149
  20. Hannachi, A., A Primer for EOF Analysis of Climate Data. Department of Meteorology, Ph. D. thesis, University of Reading, Reading, UK, 2004, pp. 133
  21. Piairo, H., et al., Spatial Modeling of Factor Analysis Scores, Environmental Science & Pollution Re-search International, 21 (2014), 23, pp. 13420-13433
  22. Schreck III, C. J., et al., Variability of the recent climate of Eastern Africa, International Journal of Climatology, 24 (2004), 6, pp. 681-701
  23. Cheng, L. J., et al., Regionalization Based on Spatial and Seasonal Variation in Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations Across China, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 67 (2018), 5, pp. 179-190
  24. He, J. H., Ji, F. Y., Two-Scale Mathematics and Fractional Calculus for Thermodynamics, Thermal Science, 23 (2019), 4, pp. 2131-2133

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence