International Scientific Journal


A thermal power plant (TPP) uses large amounts of fresh water, mostly for cooling purposes. Among different types of cooling systems, once-through cooling is the most water-intensive and has the greatest environmental impacts. From the view-point of the steam cycle efficiency, this type of cooling still provides the most efficient electricity production, and therefore is widely used. Water is withdrawn from nearby water bodies, absorbs heat from the steam in a condenser, and then discharged back to its original source at higher temperatures causing severe environmental impacts, including fish killing, disturbing ecosystems, and heating-up natural water bodies. The total installed capacity of almost 1100 MW on the right bank of the Danube in Serbia threatens the ecosystem of this large international river due to thermal pollution. This problem will be even more pronounced in the near future, due to an inevitable increase in production capacity for new 350 MW, currently under construction. Herein, analysis of the legal framework for the protection of water from thermal pollution as well as analysis of the actual situation on the site of the TPP "Kostolac" in Serbia are presented. Based on meteorological and hydrological parameters, configuration and operation parameters of the plant, the numerical simulation of the condenser was carried on. The temperature of the water leaving condenser and amount of heat discharged back to the river are obtained. According to those results, the analysis of the existing thermal pollution of the Danube River in the flow through Serbia is given by numerical simulation using software ANSYS CFX. Analysis of thermal discharge into the Danube for the five-year period has been carried out. The cooling water effluent causes a temperature increase in the area of the right bank of the Danube, and this thermal disturbance extends along the right river bank for kilometers. Note that the flow rate of the Danube is currently large enough to compensate this thermal disturbance, but for a smaller river and/or larger electricity production capacities, this influence would have even more significant consequences on the ecosystem, making those results even more useful for further analysis.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-05-09
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-05-11
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THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE Supplement 5, PAGES [S1323 - S1336]
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© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence