International Scientific Journal


Recently, new environment-friendly energy conversion technologies are required for using energy resources valid to power generation. Accordingly, low-grade heat sources as solar heat, geothermal energy, and waste heat, which have available temperatures ranging between 60 and 200°C, are supposed as applicants for recent new generation energy resources. As an alternative energy source, such low-grade heat sources usage generating electricity with the help of power turbine cycles was examined through this study. Such systems have existing technologies applicable at low temperatures and a compact structure at low cost, however, these systems have a low thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycles operated at low temperatures. An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is alike to a conventional steam power plant, except the working fluid, which is an organic, high molecular mass fluid with a liquid-vapor phase change, or boiling point, at a lower temperature than the water-steam phase change. The efficiency of an ORC is about between 10% and 20%, depending on temperature levels and availability of a valid fluid.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-01-08
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-02-28
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [2679 - 2690]
  1. Lecompte, S. 2015. "Review of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) architectures for waste heat recovery", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 47, 448-461
  2. Imran, M., Haglind, F., Asim, M., Alvid J. January 2018. "Recent research trends in organic Rankine cycle technology: A bibliometric approach", 81, Part 1, 552-562
  3. Tartière T., Astolfi M. 2017. "A World Overview of the Organic Rankine Cycle Market", Energy Procedia Energy Procedia, Volume 129, 2-9
  4. Tchanche, B. 2014. "Heat resources and organic Rankine cycle machines", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, 1185-1199
  5. Sung T., Kim K. 2017. "An organic Rankine cycle for two different heat sources: steam and hot water", Energy Procedia, 129, 883-890
  7. Capata, R. 2014. "Preliminary design and simulation of a turbo expander for small rated power organic Rankine cycle (ORC)", Energies, 7, 7067-7093
  8. Rahbar, K., Mahmoud, S., Al-Dadah, R., Moazami, N. 2015. "Modelling and optimization of organic Rankine cycle based on a small-scale radial inflow turbine", Energy Conversion and Management, 91, 186-198
  9. Rahbar, K., Mahmoud, S., Al-Dadah, R., Moazami, N., Mirhadizadeh S. 2017. "Review of organic Rankine cycle for small-scale applications", Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 134, 135-155
  10. Eyidogan, M. 2016. "Investigation of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technologies in Turkey from the technical and economic point of view", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58, 885-895
  12. Lei B., Wu Y., Ma C., Wang W., Zhi R. 2017. "Theoretical analyses of pressure losses in organic rankine cycles", Energy Conversion and Management, 153, 157-162
  13. Quoilin, S., Lemort, V., Lebrun, J. 2010. "Experimental study and modeling of an Organic Rankine Cycle using scroll expander", Applied Energy, 87, 1260-1268
  14. Miao Z., Xu J., Zhang K. 2017. "Experimental and modeling investigation of an organic Rankine cycle system based on the scroll expander", Energy, 134, 35-49
  15. Ameri, M. 2016. "Performance assessment and multi-objective optimization of an integrated organic Rankine cycle and multi-effect desalination system", Desalination, 392, 34-45
  16. Eyerer, S. 2016. "Experimental study of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and analysis of R1233zd-E as a drop-in replacement for R245fa for low temperature heat utilization", Energy, 103, 660-671
  17. Chen, H., Goswami, Y., Stefanakos, E. 2010. "A review of thermodynamic cycles and working fluids for the conversion of low-grade heat", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 3059-3067
  18. Pezzuolo, A. 2016. "The ORC-PD: A versatile tool for fluid selection and Organic Rankine Cycle unit design", Energy, 102, 605-620
  19. Hærvig, J. 2016. "Guidelines for optimal selection of working fluid for an organic Rankine cycle in relation to waste heat recovery", Energy, 96, 592-602
  20. Drescher, U., Bruggemann, D. 2007. "Fluid selection for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in biomass power and heat plants", Applied Thermal Engineering, 27, 223-228
  21. Desai, N. 2016. "Thermo-economic analysis and selection of working fluid for solar organic Rankine cycle", Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 95, 471-481
  22. Xu, H. 2016. "Investigation on the fluid selection and evaporation parametric optimization for sub- and supercritical organic Rankine cycle", Energy, 96, 59-68
  23. Jung, H., Taylor, L., Krumdieck, S. 2015. "An experimental and modelling study of a 1 kW organic Rankine cycle unit with mixture working fluid", Energy, 81, 601-614
  24. Dai, X. 2016. "Chemical kinetics method for evaluating the thermal stability of Organic Rankine Cycle working fluids", Applied Thermal Engineering, 100, 708-713
  25. Li, J. 2016. "Effect of working fluids on the performance of a novel direct vapor generation solar organic Rankine cycle system", Applied Thermal Engineering, 98, 786-797
  26. Zhai, H. 2016. "Analysis of the quantitative correlation between the heat source temperature and the critical temperature of the optimal pure working fluid for subcritical organic Rankine cycles", Applied Thermal Engineering, 99, 383-391
  27. Collings, P. 2016. "A dynamic organic Rankine cycle using a zeotropic mixture as the working fluid with composition tuning to match changing ambient conditions", Applied Energy, 171, 581-591
  28. Chen H., Goswami D., Rahman M., Stefanakos, E. 2011. "A supercritical Rankine cycle using zeotropic mixture working fluids for the conversion of low-grade heat into power", Energy, 36, 549-555
  29. Rajabloo T., Iora P., Invernizzi, C. 2016. "Mixture of working fluids in ORC plants with pool boiler evaporator", Applied Thermal Engineering, 98, 1-9
  30. Feng Y., Hung T., Greg K., Zhang Y., Li B., Yang J., 2015. "Thermoeconomic comparison between pure and mixture working fluids of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for low temperature waste heat recovery", Energy Conversion and Management, 106, 859-872
  31. Barse K. A., Mann M. D., 2016. "Maximizing ORC performance with optimal match of working fluid with system design", Applied Thermal Engineering, 100, 11-19
  32. Desideri, A. 2016. "Experimental comparison of organic fluids for low temperature ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems for waste heat recovery applications", Energy, 97, 460-469
  33. Khan, S. A., Ali, M., Shehryar, M., Tanzeel-Ur-Rashid, Khalil, M. S., Ali, H. M. and Gilani, S. I., 2017. "Performance Analysis of a Low Capacity Solar Tower Water Heating System in Climate of Pakistan", Energy and Buildings, 143, 84-99
  34. Khalid, O., Ali, M., Sheikh, N. A., Ali, H.M. and Manzoor, M. S. 2016. "Experimental Analysis of An Improved Maisosenko Cycle Design under Low Velocity Conditions", Applied Thermal Engineering, 95, 288-295
  35. Mondejar, M., Andreasen J., Regidor, M., Riva, S., Kontogeorgis, G., Persico, G., and Haglind, F. 2017. "Prospects of the use of nanofluids as working fluids for organic Rankine cycle power systems", Energy Procedia, 129, 160-167
  36. Liu L., Zhu T., Ma J. 2017. "Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system" Energy Conversion and Management, 148, 944-953
  37. Shu G., Yu G, Tian H., Wei H., Liang X., Huang Z., 2016. "Multi-approach evaluations of a cascade-Organic Rankine Cycle (C-ORC) system driven by diesel engine waste heat: Part A - Thermodynamic evaluations", Energy Conversion and Management, 108, 579-595
  38. Sung, T. 2016. "Thermodynamic analysis of a novel dual-loop organic Rankine cycle for engine waste heat and LNG cold", Applied Thermal Engineering, 100, 1031-1041
  39. Li, M. 2016. "Analytical thermal efficiency of medium-low temperature organic Rankine cycles derived from entropy-generation analysis", Energy, 106, 121-130
  40. Yue C., You F., Huang Y., 2016. "Thermal and economic analysis of an energy system of an ORC coupled with vehicle air conditioning", International Journal of Refrigeration, 64, 152-167
  41. Panesar A., Morgan R., Kennaird D. 2017. "Organic Rankine cycle thermal architecture - From concept to demonstration", Applied Thermal Engineering, 126, 419-428
  42. Wei, D. 2008. "Dynamic modeling and simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system for waste heat recovery", Applied Thermal Engineering, 28, 1216-1224
  43. Nasri, F., Chaouki, A., Bacha, H. 2011. "Electricity production system from solar-heated rankine cycle: modeling and simulation", IJRRAS 8 (2), 176-183
  44. Karellas S., Braimakis K., 2016. "Energy-exergy analysis and economic investigation of a cogeneration and trigeneration ORC-VCC hybrid system utilizing biomass fuel and solar power", Energy Conversion and Management, 107, 103-113
  45. Paanu, T., Niemi, S., Rantanen, P. 2012. "Waste Heat Recovery - Bottoming Cycle Alternatives", Proceedings of the University of Vaasa, Reports 175
  46. Rahbar, K. 2015. "Parametric analysis and optimization of a small-scale radial turbine for organic Rankine cycle", Energy, 1-16
  47. Li, G. 2016. "Organic Rankine cycle performance evaluation and thermoeconomic assessment with various applications part I: Energy and exergy performance evaluation", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53, 477-499
  48. Desai, N., Bandyopadhyay, S. 2009. "Process integration of organic Rankine cycle", Energy 34, 1674-1686
  49. Li, Y. 2016. "Investigation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and the radial-inflow turbine design", Applied Thermal Engineering, 96, 547-554
  50. Bürki, T., Börrnert, T. 2010. "Save 20% electricity by converting low temperature waste heat into electricity", Asean Federation of Cement Manufacturers, FCM 22nd Technical Symposium&Exhibition, 28-34
  51. Proctor, M. 2016. "Dynamic modelling and validation of a commercial scale geothermal organic rankine cycle power plant", Geothermics, 61, 63-74
  52. Yamamoto, T., Furuhata, T., Arai, N., Mori, K. 2001. "Design and testing of the Organic Rankine Cycle", Energy 26, 239-251
  53. Landelle A., Tauveron N., Haberschill P., Revellin R., Colasson S. 2017. "Organic Rankine cycle design and performance comparison based on experimental database", Applied Energy, 204, 1172-1187
  54. Fu, B. 2015. "Design, construction, and preliminary results of a 250-kW organic Rankine cycle system, Applied Thermal Engineering", 80, 339-346
  55. Dong, S. 2016. "Optimum design method of Organic Rankine Cycle system based on semi-empirical model and experimental validation", Energy Conversion and Management, 108, 85-95
  56. Imran, M. 2016. "Comparative assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle integration for low temperature geothermal heat source applications", Energy, 102, 473-490
  57. Ahmed A., Esmaeil K., Irfan M., Al-Mufadi F. January 2018. "Design methodology of organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery in cement plants", Applied Thermal Engineering, 129, 421-430
  58. Pu, W. 2016. "Experimental study on Organic Rankine cycle for low grade thermal energy recovery", Applied Thermal Engineering, 94, 221-227
  59. Zhai H., An Q., Shi L. 2018. "Zeotropic mixture active design method for organic rankine cycle", Applied Thermal Engineering, 129, 1171-1180
  60. Wu Q., Ren H., Gao W., Weng P., Ren J. 2018. "Design and operation optimization of organic Rankine cycle coupled trigeneration systems", Energy 142, 666-677
  61. Reis M., Gallo W. 1 February 2018. "Study of waste heat recovery potential and optimization of the power production by an organic Rankine cycle in an FPSO unit", Energy Conversion and Management, 157, 409-422
  62. Larjola, J. 1995. "Electricity from industrial waste heat using high-speed organic Rankine cycle (ORC)", Int. J. Production Economics, 41, 227-235
  63. Olsen D., Abdelouadoud Y., Liem P., Wellig B. 2017. "The Role of Pinch Analysis for Industrial ORC Integration", Energy Procedia, 129, September 2017, 74-81

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence