International Scientific Journal


The burning characteristics of conduction-controlled pool fires under a ceiling have not been revealed in the past. In this paper, experiments on square ethanol pool fires with dimensions of 4, 6, and 8 cm under the ceiling of various heights were conducted to investigate the ceiling effect on the burning rate of conduction-controlled pool fires. Results show that when the ceiling close to the pool, the burning process exhibited an extra initial steady-stage before its development stage in the burning process. Moreover, a flame-wrapping phenomenon was observed in the later period of this burning process. The pool rim wall temperature and mass burning rate exhibited an increase with the decreasing ceiling height. The rim wall temperature increase was pronounced in relative larger pool fires. However, the burning rate enhancement was prominent in relative smaller ones. The burning rate enhancement was found to be mainly attributed to the increase in pool rim wall temperature. A global factor was developed to correlate the mass burning increment with rim wall temperature increase and pool size, which was confirmed by experimental data.
PAPER REVISED: 2017-05-11
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2017-06-09
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [2987 - 2994]
  1. You, H. Z., Faeth, G. M., Ceiling heat transfer during fire plume and fire impingement, Fire and Materials, 3 (1979), 3, pp. 140-147.
  2. Babrauskas, V., Flame lengths under ceilings, Fire and Materials, 4 (1980), 3, pp. 119-126.
  3. Hou, S. S., Ko, Y. C., Effects of heating height on flame appearance, temperature field and efficiency of an impinging laminar jet flame used in domestic gas stoves, Energy Conversion and Management, 45(2004), 9-10, pp. 1583-1595.
  4. Weng, W. G., Hasemi, Y., Theoretical analysis on flame dimension in turbulent ceiling fires, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49(2006), 1-2, pp. 154-158.
  5. Ding, H., Quintiere, J. G., An integral model for turbulent flame radial lengths under a ceiling, Fire Safety Journal, 52(2012), 8, pp. 25-33.
  6. Zhang, X., et al., Flame extension length and temperature profile in thermal impinging flow of buoyant round jet upon a horizontal plate, Applied Thermal Engineering, 73(2014), 1, pp. 13-20.
  7. Gao, Z., et al., An investigation of the detailed flame shape and flame length under the ceiling of a channel, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 35(2015), 3, pp. 2657-2664.
  8. Zhang, X., et al., Flame extension lengths beneath an inclined ceiling induced by rectangular-source fires, Combustion and Flame, 176(2017), pp. 349-357.
  9. Ji, J., et al., Experimental study of non-monotonous sidewall effect on flame characteristics and burning rate of n-heptane pool fires, Fuel, 145(2015), 8, pp. 228-233.
  10. Ji, J., et al., Experimental study on behavior of sidewall fires at varying height in a corridor-like structure, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 35(2015), 3, pp. 2639-2646.
  11. Liu, J., et al., Impacts of ceiling height on the combustion behaviors of pool fires beneath a ceiling, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 126(2016), pp. 881-889.
  12. Hottel, H. C., Certain laws governing the diffusive burning of liquids. Fire Research Abstracts and Reviews, 1, (1958), pp.41-44
  13. Hu, L., et al., Flame radiation feedback to fuel surface in medium ethanol and heptane pool fires with cross air flow, Combustion and Flame, 160(2013). 2, pp. 295-306.
  14. Hu, L., et al., Burning characteristics of conduction-controlled rectangular hydrocarbon pool fires in a reduced pressure atmosphere at high altitude in Tibet, Fuel, 111(2013), 9, pp. 298-304.
  15. Quintiere, J.G., Fundamentals of fire phenomena. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 2006
  16. Hu, L., et al., A wind tunnel experimental study on burning rate enhancement behavior of gasoline pool fires by cross air flow, Combustion and Flame, 158 (2011), 3, pp. 586-591.

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence