## THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

retracted

### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF MIXED CONVECTION CHARACTERISTICS INSIDE A VENTILATED CAVITY INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF NANOPARTICLE SUSPENSIONS

**ABSTRACT**

A numerical study of mixed convection flow and heat transfer inside a square cavity with inlet and outlet ports is performed. The position of the inlet port is fixed but the location of the outlet port is varied along the four walls of the cavity to investigate the best position corresponding to maximum heat transfer rate and minimum pressure drop in the cavity. It is seen that the overall Nusselt number and pressure drop coefficient vary drastically depending on the Reynolds and Richardson numbers and the position of the outlet port. As the Richardson number increases, the overall Nusselt number generally rises for all cases investigated. It is deduced that placing the outlet port on the right side of the top wall is the best position that leads to the greatest overall Nusselt number and lower pressure drop coefficient. Finally, the effects of nanoparticles on heat transfer are investigated for the best position of the outlet port. It is found that an enhancement of heat transfer and pressure drop is seen in the presence of nanoparticles and augments with solid volume fraction of the nanofluid. It is also observed that the effects of nanoparticles on heat transfer at low Richardson numbers is more than that of high Richardson numbers.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2013-08-04

PAPER REVISED: 2013-10-08

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2013-10-11

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2017-02-12

- Yu, W., Choi, S.U.S., The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: a renovated Hamilton-Crosser model, J. Nanopart. Res., 6 (2004), 4, pp. 355-361
- Murshed, S.M.S., Leong, K.C., Yang. C., Enhanced thermal conductivity of TiO2-water based nanofluids, Int. J. Therm Sci., 44 (2005), 4, pp. 367-373
- Xie, H., Fujii, M., Zhang, X., Effect of interfacial nanolayer on the effective thermal conductivity of nanoparticle-fluid mixture, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48 (2005), 14, pp. 2926-2932
- Xuan, Y., Li, Q., Heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 21 (2000), 1, pp. 58-64
- Evans, W., Prasher, R., Fish, J., Meakin, P., Phelan, P., Keblinski, P., Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51 (2008), 5-6, pp. 1431-1438
- Jang, S. P., Choi, S. U. S., The role of Brownian motion in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Appl. Phys. Lett., 84 (2004), 21, pp. 4316-4318
- Han, W. S., Rhi, S. H., Thermal characteristics of grooved heat pipe with hybrid nanofluids, Thermal Science, 15 (2011), 1, pp. 195-206
- Rashidi, M.M., Erfani, E., The modified differential transform method for investigating nano boundary-layers over stretching surfaces, Int. J. Numer Method H., 21 (2011), 7, pp. 864-883
- Sourtiji, E., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., Gorji-Bandpy, M., Ganji, D. D., Effect of Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluids on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Periodic Mixed Convection inside a Square Ventilated Cavity, Int Commun Heat Mass, 38 (2011), 8, pp. 1125-1134
- Cho, C.C., Yau, H.T., Chen, C.K., Enhancement of natural convection heat transfer in a U-shaped cavity filled with Al2O3-water nanofluid, Thermal Science, 16 (2012), 5, pp. 1317 - 1323
- Sourtiji, E., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., Heat transfer augmentation of magnetohydrodynamic natural convection in L-shaped cavities utilizing nanofluids, Thermal Science, 16 (2012), 2, pp. 489 - 501
- Anwar Beg, O., Rashidi, M.M., Akbari, M., Hossini, A., Comparative numerical study of single-phase and two-phase models for bio-nanofluid transport phenomena, J. Mech. Med. Biol., In Press.
- Rashidi, M.M., Abelman, S., Freidoonimehr, N., Entropy generation in steady MHD flow due to a rotating porous disk in a nanofluid, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 62 (2013), pp. 515-525
- Aminossadati, S.M., Hydromagnetic natural cooling of a triangular heat source in a triangular cavity with water-CuO nanofluid, Int Commun Heat Mass, 43 (2013), pp. 22-29
- Khanafer, K., Vafai, K., Lightstone, M., Buoyancy-driven heat transfer enhancement in a two-dimensional enclosure utilizing nanofluids, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46 (2003), 19, pp. 3639-3653
- Choa, C.C., Chenb, C.L., Chen, C.K., Mixed convection heat transfer performance of water-based nanofluids in lid-driven cavity with wavy surfaces, Int. J. Therm Sci., 68 (2013), pp. 181-190
- Nguyen, C.T., Desgranges, F., Roy, G., Galanis, N., Mare´, T., Boucher, S., Mintsa, H.A., Temperature and particle-size dependent viscosity data for water-based nanofluids - Hysteresis phenomenon, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 28 (2007), 6, pp. 1492-1506
- Murshed, S. M. S., Leong, K. C., Yang, C., Thermophysical and electrokinetic properties of nanofluids - A critical review, Appl. Therm. Eng., 28 (2008), 17-18, pp. 2109-2125
- Patankar, S.V., Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, Washington DC, 1980
- Saeidi, S.M., Khodadadi, J.M., Forced convection in a square cavity with inlet and outlet ports, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49 (2006), 11-12, 1896-1906