International Scientific Journal


Rapid growth in the energy consumption has conditioned the need for discovering the alternative energy resources which would be adapted to the existing engine constructions and which would satisfy the additional criteria related to the renewability, ecology and reliability of use. Introduction of biodiesel has been the focus of attention over the last ten years. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of biodiesel on the performances and exhaust gas emissions of medium power agricultural tractor engines (37-66 kW). The reason for the selection of this category is that those types of tractors are most frequently used in agriculture. In this research biodiesel produced from sunflower oil was blended with fossil diesel. Biodiesel, fossil diesel and fossil diesel blends with 15, 25, 50 and 75%v/v biodiesel were tested for their influence on the engine performances and emissions. The testing was performed on a four-cylinder diesel engine with 48 kW rated power. The experimental research on the engine performances was conducted in compliance with OECD test CODE 2, and the exhaust gas emissions were tested according to the ISO 8178-4, C1. The use of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends reduced the engine power with the increase of biodiesel share in the blend. However, the exception was the blend with 15%v/v biodiesel which induced a slight increase in the engine power. Depending on the share of biodiesel in the blend all blends fuels showed increased specific fuel consumption compared to the fossil diesel. Thermal efficiency increased as a result of more complete combustion of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends. The exhaust gas emissions implied that the addition of biodiesel reduced the content of CO2 and CO, as well as the temperature of exhaust gases, but it increased the emission of NOx.
PAPER REVISED: 2012-03-03
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2012-04-16
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2013, VOLUME 17, ISSUE Issue 1, PAGES [263 - 278]
  1. ** Trading Economics,
  2. Tiegang Fang. Biodiesel combustion in an optical HSDI diesel engine under low load premixed combustion conditions. Fuel 2009, 88: 2154-2162.
  3. Krishnakumar J. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils, Thermal Science 2008, 12(2): 159-169.
  4. Mićić R.: Hidrodesulfarisation, Monography, Faculty of Tehnology Novi Sad 2011, (in Serbian language)
  5. Lapuerta M, Armas O, Fernandez JR. Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions. Progress in energy and combustion science 2008. 34: 198-223.
  6. LM Chen, Qi DH, Geng H, Bian YZ, Liu J, Ren XC. Combustion and performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel produced from soybean crude oil. Renewable Energy 2009, 34(12): 2706-2713.
  7. Imdat Taymaz, Mucahit Sengil: Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using esters of palm olein/soybean oil blends, Int. J. Vehicle Design 2010, 54(2): 177-189.
  8. Ozsezen AN, Canakci M. The emission analysis of an IDI diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of waste frying palm oil and its blends. Biomass Bioenergy 2010. 34: 1870-1878.
  9. Ramesh D, Sampthrajan A. Investigations on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Jatropha Biodiesel and Its Blends. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR E jurnal, Manuscript EE 07 013, 2008, 10.
  10. Song J-T, Zhang C-H. An experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with soybean oil methyl ester. P I Mech Eng D-J Aut 2008;222:2487-96.
  11. Hazar H. Effects of biodiesel on a low heat loss diesel engine. Renew Energy 2009. 34: 1533-
  12. 12. Mustapić Z, Krička T, Stanić Z. Biodiesel as alternative engine fuel. Energy. 2006, 55(6): 634-657
  13. Rajan K, Senthil Kumar KR. The Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the performance and emission Characteristics of diesel Engine with Sunflower oil methil ester. International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research 2009. 1(1): 31-39.
  14. Foglia TA, Nelson LA, Dunn RO, Marmer WN. Low-Temperature Properties of Alkyl Esters of Tallow and Grease. JAOCS 1997. 8: 951-955.
  15. Parrilla1 J, Muñoz M, Moreno F. Endurance and durability in biodiesel powered engines. Department of Mechanical Engineering. University of Zaragoza. Spain
  16. Hoshino, T., Iwata Y., Koseki H.: Oxidation stability and risk evaluation of biodiesel, Thermal Science 2007, 11(2): 87-100.
  17. Monyem A, Van Gerpen JH. The effect of biodiesel oxidation on engine performance and emissions. Biomass Bioenergy 2001. 20: 317-325.
  18. Dhananjaya, D.A., Sudhir, C.V., Mohanan, P.: Combustion characteristics of diesel engine operating of jatropha oil methyl ester, Thermal Science 2010, 14(4): 965-977.
  19. Tešić M., i sar.: The possibility of producing and using biodiesel in AP Vojvodina, Vojvodinas Academy of Sciences and Arts, Novi Sad 2009., 1-54. (in Serbian language)
  20. Brkić M., Janić T.: New estimate of types and quantities of biomass for production of energy in Vojvodina, Journal Cont. Agr. Engng. 2010, 36(2),178-188. (in Serbian language)
  21. Furman T. Biodiesel, Liquid fuel. Monography, Biodiesel alternative and ecology liquid fuel, Faculty of Agriculture Novi Sad, 2005: 5-11. (in Serbian language)
  23. Nikolić R, et al: The situation and equipping with agricultural mechanization in 2011 year. Tractors and Power Machines 2010. 15(5): 7-23. (in Serbian language)
  24. Tomić M, Matić-Kekić S, Savin L, Desnica E, Dedović N, Simikić M, Ponjičan O, Ašonja A. Optimization of the locations of overhaul capacities for agricultural engineering in Serbia by 15 applying integer programming. African Journal of Agricultural Research 2011, 6(15): 3346-
  25. 25. Živkov-Balaš M, Tomić M, Mihaljev Ž, Stojanov I, Kapetanov M, Prodanov-Radulović J, Potkonjak D. Sunflower cake- by-product in biodiesel production, 22nd International symposium „Safe food production", Proceedings 2011: 438-440.
  26. Milan I, Camps M, Ponce de Leon JL, Sanchez-Giron V. Performance and emissions of an agricultural diesel engine fuelled with different diesel and methyl estar blends. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2010. 8(2): 299-307.
  27. OECD, 2009. Standard code for the official testing of agricultural and forestry tractor performance. Code 2. February. 2009.
  28. **Exhaust Emission Legislation. Diesel and Gas engines. Engines and Systems. June 2006.
  29. Godiganur S, Murthy CHS, Reddy RP. 6BTA 5.9 G2-1 Cummins engine performance and emission tests using methyl ester mahua (Madhuca indica) oil/diesel blends. Renewable Energy 2009. 34: 2172-2177
  30. Usta N. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester. Energy Convers. Manage 2005. 46: 2373-2386.
  31. Raheman H, Phadatare AG. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel. Biomass Bioenerg 2004;27:393-7.
  32. Canakci M, Van Gerpen JH. Comparison of engine performance and emissions for petroleum diesel fuel, yellow grease biodiesel, and soybean oil biodiesel. Trans ASAE 2003;46:937-44.
  33. Lin C-Y, Lin H-A. Engine performance and emission characteristics of a threephase emulsion of biodiesel produced by peroxidation. Fuel Process Technol 2007;88:35-41.
  34. Gumus M, Kasifoglu S. Performance and emission evaluation of a compression ignition engine using a biodiesel (apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester) and its blends with diesel fuel. Biomass Bioenergy 2010. 34: 134-139.
  35. Ozsezen AN, Canakci M, Turkcan A, Sayin C. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters. Fuel 2009;88:629-
  36. Utlu Z, Koc¸ ak MS. The effect of biodiesel fuel obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions. Renew Energ 2008;33:1936-41.
  37. Keskin A, Gürü M, Altıparmak D. Influence of tall oil biodiesel withMgandMo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Bioresource Technol 2008;99:6434-8.
  38. Lin C-Y, Lin H-A. Engine performance and emission characteristics of a threephase emulsion of biodiesel produced by peroxidation. Fuel Process Technol 2007;88:35-41.
  39. Sahoo PK, Das LM, Babu MKG, Naik SN. Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine. Fuel 2007;86:448-54.
  40. EPA - Environmental protection agency. A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions. Draft technical report 2002.
  41. Gonzalez Gomez ME, Howard-Hildige R, Leahy JJ, O'reilly T, Supple B, Malone M. Emission and performance characteristics of a 2 liter Toyota diesel van operating on esterified waste cooking oil and mineral diesel fuel. Environ. Monit. and Assess 2000. 65: 13-20
  42. Lapuerta, M., Armas, O., Rodríguez-Fernández, J.: Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions , Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 2008. 34(2): 198-223
  43. Knothe G. Dependance of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esterrs. Fuel Process. Technol 2005. 86: 1059-1070.
  44. Godiganur S.K., Murthy Ch.S., Reddy, R.P.: The effect of karanja oil methyl ester on kirloskar HA394DI diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions, Thermal Science 2010, 14(4): 957-964.

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence