International Scientific Journal

External Links


Biodiesel was prepared from the non-edible oil of Pongamia pinnata L. by transesterification of the crude-oil with methanol in the presence of NAOH as catalyst. Vegetable oils can be transesterified by heating them with a large excess of anhydrous methanol and an acidic or basic reagent as catalyst. Both the acid as well as alkaline esterifications were subsequently performed to get the final product. A catalyst is usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. NaOH was found to be a better catalyst than KOH in terms of yield. In a transesterification reaction, a larger amount of methanol was used to shift the reaction equilibrium to the right side and produce more methyl esters as the proposed product. Several aspects including the type of catalyst (alkaline, acid, or enzyme), alcohol/vegetable oil molar ratio, temperature, purity of the reactants (mainly water content) and free fatty acid content have an influence on the course of the transesterification. A maximum conversion of 94% (oil to ester) was achieved using a 1:10 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 60 to 65 °C. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of pongamia oil (biodiesel) compare well with ASTM standards.
PAPER REVISED: 2009-01-23
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2009-06-03
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2009, VOLUME 13, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [201 - 206]
  1. Lakshmikanthan, V., Tree Borne Oil Seeds, Directorate of Non-Edible Oils and Soap Industry, Khadi and Village Industries Commission, Mumbai, India, 1978
  2. Ma, F., Hanna, M. A., Biodiesel Production: A Review, Bioresour. Technol., 70 (1999), 1, pp. 1-15
  3. Shrinivasa, U., A Viable Substitute for Diesel in Rural India, Current Sc., 80 (2001), 12, pp. 1483-1484
  4. Agarwal, A. K., Das, L. M., Biodiesel Development and Characterization for Use as a Fuel in Compression Ignition Engine, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (ASME Transactions), 123 (2001), 2, pp. 440-447
  5. Biswas, D., Parivesh: Biodiesel as Automobile Fuel, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Central Pollution Control Board, India,
  6. Agarwal, A. K., Jayashree, B., Das, L. M., Wear Assessment in Biodieselue Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power (ASME Transactions), 125 (2003), 3, pp. 820-826
  7. Meher, L. C., Naik, S. N., Das, L. M., Methanolysis of Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja) Oil for Production of Biodiesel, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 63 (2004), November, pp. 913-918
  8. Sahoo, P. K., et al., Biodiesel Development from High Acid Value Polanga Seed Oil and Performance Evaluation in CI Engine, Fuel, 86 (2007), 3, pp. 448-454
  9. Boocock, D. G. B., et al., Fast One-Phase Oil-Rich Processes for the Preparation of Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters, Biomass Bioenergy, 11 (1996), 1, pp. 43-50
  10. Zhou, W., Konar, S. K., Boocock, D. G. B., Ethyl Esters from the Single-Phase Base-Catalyzed Ethanolysis of Vegetable Oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 80 (2003), 4, pp. 367-371
  11. Darnoko, D., Cheryan, M., Kinetics of Palm Oil Transesterification in a Batch Reactor, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77 (2000), 12, pp. 1263-1267
  12. Kusdiana, D., Saka, S., Kinetics of Transesterification in Rapeseed Oil to Biodiesel Fuel as Treated in Supercritical Methanol, Fuel, 80 (2001), 5, pp. 693-698
  13. Karmee, S. K., et al., Kinetics Study of the Base Catalyzed Transesterification of Monoglycerides from Pongamia Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 81 (2004), 5, pp. 425-430
  14. Suppes, G. J., et al., Transesterification of Soybean Oil with Zeolite and Metal Catalyst, Appl. Catal. A: General, 257 (2004), 2, pp. 213-223
  15. Schwab, A. W., Bagby, M. O., Freedman, B., Preparation and Properties of Diesel Fuels from Vegetable oils, Fuel, 66 (1987), 10, pp. 1372-1378
  16. Otera, J., Esterification - Methods, Reactions and Applications. John Wiley and Sons, VCH-GmbH and Co., 2003
  17. Canakei, M., Gerpen, J. V., Biodiesel Production via Acid-Catalysis, Transactions of the ASAE, 42 (1999), 5, pp. 1203-1210
  18. Freedman, B., Pryde, E. H., Mounts, T. L., Variables Affecting the Yields of Fatty Esters from Transesterified Vegetable Oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 61 (1984), 10, pp. 1638-1643
  19. Agarwal, A. K., Biofuels (Alcohols and Biodiesel) Applications as Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 33 (2007), 3, pp. 237-271
  20. Meher, L. C., Naik, S. N., Dharmgadda Vidaya, S. S., Optimization of Alkali-Catalyzed Transesterifica- tion of Pongamia Pinnata Oil for Production of Biodiesel, Bioresource Technology, 97 (2006), 12, pp. 1392-1397
  21. Darnoko, D., Cheryan, M., Continuous Production of Palm Methyl Esters, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 77 (2000a), 12, pp. 1269-1272
  22. Ghadge, S., Raheman, H.,Biodiesel Production from Mahua (Madhuca indica) Oil Having High Free Fatty Acids, Biomass & Bioenergy, 28 (2005), 6, pp. 601-605
  23. Siler-Marinkovic, S., Tomasevic, A., Methanolysis of Used Frying Oil, Fuel Process. Technol., 81 (2003), 1, pp. 1-6
  24. Antolin, G. F., et al., Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Sunflower Oil Transesterification, Bioresour. Technol., 83 (2002), 2, pp. 111-114

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence