International Scientific Journal


This paper presents an on-going research project that aims to identify possibilities for wider use of evaporative cooling in process industry, especially the use of evaporative fluid cooler units. Experimental study is performed on small scale evaporative fluid cooler, while the correlation based model has been carried out to explore the detailed heat and mass transfer processes inside this unit. Numerical integration of mathematical model is executed by new approach, based on differential, collocation Simpson method. Proposed models have been verified by comparing the computed results with those obtained by the experimental measurements. The results of research will enable the creation of more comprehensive simulation software, with wider range of operating and construction parameters.
PAPER REVISED: 2008-09-04
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2008-09-05
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. Zalewski, W., Mathematical Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Evaporative Condensers, Int. J. Refrig., 16 (1993), 1, pp. 23-30
  2. Zalewski, W., Gryglaszewski, P. A., Mathematical Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Evaporative Coolers, Chem. Eng. Process., 36 (1997), 4, pp. 271-280
  3. Khan, J. U. R., Yaqub, M., Zubair, S. M., Performance Characteristics of Counter Flow Wet Cooling Towers, Energy Conversion and Management, 44 (2003), 13, pp. 2073-2091
  4. Facao, J., Oliveira, A.C., Thermal Behavior of Closed Wet Cooling Towers for Use with Chilled Ceilings, Applied Thermal Engineering, 20 (2000), 13, pp. 1225-1236
  5. Gan, G., Riffat, S. B., Shao, L., Doherty, P., Application of CFD to Closed-Wet Cooling Towers, Applied Thermal Engineering, 21 (2001), 1, pp. 79-92
  6. Hasan, A., Gan, G., Simplification of Analytical Models and Incorporation with CFD for the Performance Prediction of Closed Wet Cooling Towers, International Journal of Energy Research, 26 (2002), 13, pp.1161-1174
  7. Merkel, F., Evaporative Cooling, VDI-Zeitchrift, 70 (1925), 70, pp. 123-128
  8. Goodman, W., The Evaporative Condenser, Heat Piping Air Conditioning, 10 (1938), pp. 165-328
  9. Thomsen, E. G., Heat Transfer in an Evaporative Condenser, Refrigeration Eng., 51 (1946), 5, pp. 425-431
  10. Wile, D. D., Evaporative Condenser Performance Factors, Refrigeration Eng., 58 (1950), 1, pp. 55-63
  11. Ren, C., Yang, H., An Analytical Model for the Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Indirect Evaporative Cooling with Parallel/Counter Flow Configurations, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49 (2006), 3-4, pp. 617-627
  12. Jang, J. Y, Wang, Z. G., Heat and Mass Transfer Performance of Closed-Type Towers, Advances in Computational Heat Transfer II, Proceedings, Symposium of the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer, Queensland, Australia, 2001, pp. 269-276
  13. Erens, P. J, Dreyer, A. A., Modeling of Indirect Evaporative Coolers, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36 (1993), 1, pp. 17-26
  14. Hasan, A., Siren, K., Performance Investigation of Plain and Finned Tube Evaporatively Cooled Heat Exchangers, Appl. Thermal Eng., 23 (2003), 3, pp. 325-340
  15. Hasan, A., Siren, K., Performance Investigation of Plain Circular and Oval Tube Evaporatively Cooled Heat Exchangers, Appl. Thermal Eng., 24 (2004), 5-6, pp. 779-790
  16. Parker, R. O., Treybal, R. E., The Heat-Mass Transfer Characteristics of Evaporative Coolers, Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, 57 (1962), 32, pp. 138-149
  17. Mizushina, T., R. Ito, R., Miyashita, H., Experimental Study of an Evaporative Cooler, International Chemical Engineering, 7 (1967), 4, pp. 727-732
  18. Mizushina, T., R. Ito, R., Miyashita, H., Characteristics and Methods of Thermal Design of Evaporative Cooler, International Chemical Engineering, 8 (1968), 3, pp. 532-538
  19. Niitsu, Y., Naito, K., Anzai, T., Studies on Characteristics and Design Procedure of Evaporative Coolers, Journal of SHASE, 43 (1969),7, pp.581-590
  20. Leidenfrost, W., Korenic, B., Evaporative Cooling and Heat Transfer Augmentation Related to Reduced Condenser Temperatures, Heat Transfer Eng., 3 (1982), 3-4, pp. 38-59
  21. Maclaine-Cross, I. L., Banks, P. J., A General Theory of Wet Surface Heat Exchangers and its Application to Regenerative Cooling, Journal of Heat Transfer, 103 (1981), 3, pp. 578-585
  22. Kettleborough, C. F., Hsieh, C. S., The Thermal Performance of the Wet Surface Plastic Plate Heat Exchanger Used as an Indirect Evaporative Cooler, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105 (1983), pp. 366-373
  23. Zalewski, W., Heat and Fluid Flow Problems in Evaporative Heat Exchangers (in Polish), Monograph 139, Krakow University of Technology, Krakow, Poland, 1992
  24. ***, Heat Exchange by Fluid Flow in Tube (in German) (Ed. V. Gnielinski), VDI-Heating Handbook, VDI-Edition, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1985
  25. Tovaras, N. V., Bykov, A. V., Gogolin, V. A., Heat Exchange at Film Water Flow under Operating Conditions of Evaporative Condenser (in Russian), Holod Teh, (1984), 1, pp. 25-29
  26. Grimson, E. D., Correlation and Utilization of New Data on Flow Resistance and Heat Transfer for Cross Flow of Gases Over Tube Banks, Trans. ASME, 59 (1937), pp. 583-594
  27. Bošnjaković, F., Technical Thermodynamics II (in German), Edition Th. Steinkopff, Dresden and Leipzig, 1965
  28. Ascher, U. M., Mattheij, R. M. R., Russell, R. D. R., Numerical Solution of Boundary Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N. J., USA, 1988
  29. Saravanan, M., Saravanan, R., Renganarayanan, S., Energy and Exergy Analysis of Counter Flow Wet Cooling Tower, Thermal Science, 12 (2008), 2, pp. 69-78

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence