International Scientific Journal


Three promising biomass fuels from southern European regions were gasified atmospherically with air in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor with quartz or olivine as bed material. The fuels used were an agro-industrial residue (olive bagasse) and the energy crops giant reed and sweet sorghum bagasse. Varying air ratios and temperatures were tested to study the impact on the product gas composition and tar load. Tars were higher in the case of olive bagasse, attributed to its higher lignin content compared to the other two biomasses with higher cellulose. Giant reed gasification causes agglomeration and defluidisation problems at 790°C while olive bagasse shows the least agglomeration tendency. The particular olivine material promoted the destruction of tars, but to a lesser level than other reported works; this was attributed to its limited iron content. It also promoted the H2 and CO2 production while CO content decreased. Methane yield was slightly affected (decreased) with olivine, higher temperatures, and air ratios. Air ratio increase decreased the tar load but at the same time the gas quality deteriorated. .
PAPER REVISED: 2007-02-21
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2007-02-25
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. Maniatis K. and Millich E., Energy from biomass and waste: The contribution of utility scale biomass gasification plants, Biomass and Bioenergy 15, (1998), 3, pp. 195-200.
  2. Spliethoff H., Status of biomass gasification for power production, IFRF Combustion Journal 2001; Article Number 200109
  3. Bridgwater A V., The future for biomass pyrolysis and gasification: status, opportunities and policies for Europe, ALTENER Contract No: 4.1030/S/01-009/2001, Bio-Energy Research Group, November 2002, Ashton University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
  4. Andre R. N., Pinto F., Franco C., Dias M., Gulyrtlu I., Matos M.A.A. et al., Fluidised bed co-gasification of coal and olive oil industry wastes, Fuel 84, (2005), pp. 1635-1644.
  5. Garcia-Ibanez P., Cabanillas A., Sanchez J.M., Gasification of leached orujillo (olive oil waste) in a pilot plant Circulating fluidised bed reactor, Preliminary results, Biomass and Bioenergy 27, (2004), pp. 183 - 194.
  6. Roig A., Cayuela M.L. and Sánchez-Monedero M.A., An overview on olive mill wastes and their valorisation methods, Waste Management, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 24 October 2005.
  7. Ollero P., Serrera A., Arjona R. and Alcantarilla S., The CO2 gasification kinetics of olive residue, Biomass and Bioenergy 24, (2003), 2, pp. 151-161.
  8. Encinar J. M., Beltrán F. J., Ramiro A. and González J. F., Pyrolysis/gasification of agricultural residues by carbon dioxide in the presence of different additives: influence of variables, Fuel Processing Technology 55, (1998), 3 pp. 219-233.
  9. Jankes Goran G. and Milovanovic Nebojsa M., Biomass gasification in small-scale units for the use in agriculture and forestry in Serbia, Thermal Science 5, (2001), 2, pp. 49-57.
  10. Bridgwater A.V., The technical and economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation, Fuel 74, (1995), pp. 631-653.
  11. Devi L., Craje M., Thüne P., Ptasinski K. J., Janssen F. J.J.G., Olivine as tar removal catalyst for biomass gasifiers: Catalyst characterization, Applied Catalysis A 294, (2005), 1, pp. 68-79.
  12. Devi L., Ptasinski K. J., Janssen F. J.J.G., van Paasen S. V.B., Bergman P.C.A. and Kiel J.H.A., Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars: use of dolomite and untreated olivine, Renewable Energy 30, (2005), 4, pp. 565-587.
  13. Guan Hu, Shaoping Xu, Shiguang Li, Changrui Xiao and Shuqin Liu, Steam gasification of apricot stones with olivine and dolomite as downstream catalysts, Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 87, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 375-382
  14. S. Rapagnà, N. Jand, A. Kiennemann and P. U. Foscolo, Steam-gasification of biomass in a fluidised-bed of olivine particles, Biomass and Bioenergy 19, (2000), 3, pp. 187-197
  15. Venturi P. and Venturi G., Analysis of energy comparison for crops in European agricultural systems, Biomass and Bioenergy 25, (2003), 3, pp. 235 - 255
  16. Suresh K., Kiran Sree N. and Venkateswer Rao L., Utilization of damaged sorghum and rice grains for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, Bioresource Technology 68, (1999), 3, pp. 301-304.
  17. Handan Çubuk M. and Heperkan H.A.Hasan A., Investigation of pollutant formation of Sweet Sorghum-lignite (Orhaneli) mixtures in fluidised beds, Biomass and Bioenergy 27, (2004), 3, pp. 277-287.
  18. Piskorz J., Majerski P., Radlein D., Scott D. S. and Bridgwater A. V., Fast pyrolysis of Sweet Sorghum and Sweet Sorghum bagasse, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 46, (1998), 1, pp. 15-29.
  19. Cosentino S. L., Copani V., D'Agosta G. Marina, Sanzone E. and Mantineo M., First results on evaluation of Arundo donax L. clones collected in Southern Italy, Industrial Crops and Products, In Press, Available online 24 August 2005.
  20. Neeft J. P. A., Knoef H. A. M., Zielke U., Sjöström K., Hasler P., Simell P. A., Guideline for Sampling and Analysis of Tar and Particles in Biomass Producer Gases, Version 3.3, Energy project ERK6-CT1999-20002 (Tar Protocol).
  21. Maniatis K. and Beenackers A.A.C.M., Tar Protocols. IEA Bioenergy Gasification Task, Biomass and Bioenergy 18, (2000), 1, pp.1-4.
  22. Rapagna S., Jana N., Kiennemann A., Foscolo P.U., Steam-gasification of biomass in a fluidised-bed of olivine particles, Biomass and Bioenergy 19, (2000), 3, pp. 187-197.
  23. Seaman, J.F., Bubl, J.L. and Harris, E.E., Quantitative saccharification of wood and cellulose, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 17, (1945), pp. 35-37.
  24. TAPPI Test Method T250, Acid-Soluble Lignin in Wood and Pulp. In: Tappi Test Methods. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Atlanta.
  25. Nordgreen T., Liliedahl T., Sjöström K., Metallic iron as a tar breakdown catalyst related to atmospheric, fluidised bed gasification of biomass, Fuel 85, (2006), pp. 689-694.
  26. Hanaoka T., Inoue S., Uno S., Ogi T., Minowa T., Effect of woody biomass components on air-steam gasification, Biomass and Bioenergy 28, (2005), (1), pp. 69-76.
  27. Öhman M., Experimental studies on bed agglomeration during fluidised bed combustion of biomass fuels, PhD Thesis, Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Sweden, Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Umeå University, Sweden, 1999.
  28. Skrifvars B.-J., Öhman M., Nordin A., and Hupa M., Predicting Bed Agglomeration Tendencies for Biomass Fuels Fired in FBC Boilers: A Comparison of Three Different Prediction Methods, Energy & Fuels 13, (1999), pp. 359-363.
  29. Van der Drift A., Olsen A., Conversion of biomass, prediction and solution methods for ash agglomeration and related problems, ECN-C-99-090, November 1999, Final report, ECN Biomass.
  30. B. J. Skrifvars, M. Hupa, R. Backman and M. Hiltunen, Sintering mechanisms of FBC ashes, Fuel 73(2) (1994) 171-176.
  31. M. Öhman and A. Nordin, Bed Agglomeration Characteristics during Fluidised Bed Combustion of Biomass Fuels, Energy & Fuels 14 (2000) 169-178.
  32. L. Baxter, T. R. Miles, T. R. Miles Jr., B. M. Jenkins, T. Milne, D. Dayton, R. W. Bryers and L. L. Oden, The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers: field and laboratory experiences Fuel Processing Technology, 54(1-3) (1998) 47-78.

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence