International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Application of trigeneration with direct co-combustion of poultry waste and coal: A case study in the poultry industry from Turkey

This study implies the significance of a trigeneration (TG) system, which converts a single fuel source into three useful energy products (i.e. power, heating and cooling), and focuses on the simulation of a trigeneration system with direct co-combustion of poultry wastes. The methodology is applied to a case study in northwest of Turkey to investigate how local poultry manure and environmental conditions can be effective in the production of energy. In addition, thermodynamic assessment of the system is performed, and the performance of the trigeneration system is assessed by using energy, exergy and parametric analysis methods. Poultry litter to coal ratio was 50 % at the beginning, then poultry litter ratio in the mixture was increased to 90 %, and this has led to less CO2 emissions from the TG and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems co-firing with poultry litter. With rice husk however the consumptions of TG and CHP increased from 6533 to 6624 t/year, and 6549 to 6640 t/year, respectively. As a result, co-combustion of PW can be considered as the best environmentally-friendly remedy to dispose chicken farm wastes, while catering the energy demand of the facility.
PAPER REVISED: 2017-04-30
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2017-05-03
  1. Zhu S. and Lee S.W., Co-combustion performance of poultry wastes and natural gas in the advanced Swirling Fluidized Bed Combustor (SFBC), Waste Management, 25 (2005), 511-518.
  2. Kelleher B.P. et al., Advances in poultry litter disposal technology - a review, Bioresource Technology, 83 (2002), 27- 36.
  3. Henihan A.M. et al., Emissions modeling of fluidised bed co-combustion of poultry litter and peat, Bioresource Technology, 87 (2003), 289-294.
  4. Billen P. et al., Electricity from poultry manure: a cleaner alternative to direct land application, Journal of Cleaner Production, 96 (2015), 467-475.
  5. Davalos. Z., Roux M. V., Jiménez P., Evaluation of poultry litter as a feasible fuel, Thermochimica Acta, 394 (2002), 261-266
  6. Palma C.F., Characterisation, kinetics and modelling of gasification of poultry manure and litter: An overview, Energy Conversion and Management, 53 (2012), 92-98
  7. Williams A.G. et al., Environmental benefits of using turkey litter as a fuel instead of a fertiliser, Journal of Cleaner Production, 113 (2016), 167-175
  8. Toptas A. et al., Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their compositions with lignite, Bioresource Technology, 177 (2015), 328-336
  9. Lynch D. et al., Utilisation of poultry litter as an energy feedstock, Biomass and Bio Energy, 49 (2013), 197-204
  10. Kwiatkowski K. et al., Bioenergy from feathers gasification-efficiency and performance analysis, Biomass and Bio Energy, 59 (2013), 402-411
  11. Cotana F. et al., Energy valorization of poultry manure in a thermal power plant: experimental campaign, Energy Procedia, 45 (2014), 315 - 322
  12. Sweetena J.M. et al., Co-firing of coal and cattle feedlot biomass (FB) fuels. Part I. Feedlot biomass (cattle manure) fuel quality and characteristics, Fuel, 83 (2003), 1167-1182
  13. Wang Y.D. et al.,Characteristics of a diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by the waste heat from engine exhaust, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E, Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering, 220 (2006), 139-149
  14. Wang Y.D. et al., An experimental investigation of a household size trigeneration, Applied Thermal Engineering, 27 (2007), 576-585
  15. Kong X.Q. et al., Energy efficiency and economic feasibility of CCHP driven by sterling engine, Energy Conversion and Management, 45 (2004), 1433-1442
  16. Temir G. and Bilge D., Thermoeconomic analysis of a trigeneration system, Applied Thermal Engineering, 24 (2004), 2689-2699
  17. Calva E.T. et al., Thermal integration of trigeneration systems, Applied Thermal Engineering, 25 (2005), 973-984
  18. Rong A. and Lahdelma R., An efficient linear programming model and optimization algorithm for trigeneration, Applied Energy, 82 (2005), 40-63
  19. Ziher D. and Poredos A., Economics of a trigeneration system in a hospital, Applied Thermal Engineering, 26 (2006), 680-687
  20. Temir G. et al., An application of trigeneration and its economic analysis, Energy Sources, 26 (2004), 857-867
  21. Wang Y. et al., Trigeneration running with raw jatropha oil, Fuel Processing Technology, 91 (2010), 348-353
  22. Suamir I.N. and Tassou S.A., Performance evaluation of integrated trigeneration and CO2 refrigeration systems, Applied Thermal Engineering, 11 (2012), 1-9
  23. Eicker U., Biomass trigeneration with decentral cooling by district heating networks, Proceedings of 2nd Polygeneration conference, Tarragona (2011) 30.3.-1.4
  24. Bruno J. C. et al., Integration of absorption cooling systems into micro gas turbine trigeneration systems using biogas: Case study of a sewage treatment plant, Applied Energy, 86 (2009), 837-847.
  25. Huang Y. et al., Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings, Energy Conversion and Management, 52 (2011), 2448-2454
  26. Lai S. M. and Hui C. W., Feasibility and flexibility for a trigeneration system, Energy, 34 (2009), 1693-1704
  27. Moussawi H.A. et al., Selection based on differences between cogeneration and trigeneration in various prime mover technologies, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74 (2017), 491-511
  28. Oktay Z., Investigation of coal-fired power plants in Turkey and a case study: Can plant. Applied Thermal Engineering, 29 (2009), 550-557
  29. Bejan, A. et al., Thermal Design and Optimization, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 1996
  30. Bejan A., Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 1998
  31. Thermoflow, Thermoflex Version 18, Thermoflow Inc., MA, USA, 2008
  32. Kalhori S.B. et al., Mashad trigeneration potential - An opportunity for CO2 abatement in Iran, Energy Conversion and Management, 60 (2012), 106-114
  33. Pan S.Y. et al., Strategies on implementation of waste-to-energy (WTE) supply chain for circular economy system: a review, Journal of Cleaner Production, 108 (2015), 409-421
  34. Eksi G. and Karaosmanoglu F., Combined bioheat and biopower: A technology review and an assessment for Turkey, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74 (2017), 1313-1332
  35. Chitsaz A. et al., Effect of recycling on the thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of SOFC based on trigeneration systems; A comparative study, Energy, 124 (2017), 613-624