International Scientific Journal


Utilization of hydrocarbon gaseous fuels, such as biogas, landfill gas and others, is a valuable contribution to sustainable energy production and climate changing control. The presence of CO2 in these gases decreases heat of combustion, flame temperature, flame speed and can induce flame blow-off and combustion instabilities. In order to better understand the problem, flame geometry and location was investigated using CH* chemiluminescence imaging technique. Combustion took place in a purposely built, lean, premixed, unconfined swirl burner, fueled by methane and propane diluted with CO2. The fuel type, air-to-fuel equivalence ratio and CO2 content were chosen as the independent variables. The CH* imaging by means of a commercial CCD camera, fitted with an optical filter, was used for flame investigation. The analysis of images showed that the CH* emission intensity, flame geometry and location were remarkably affected by the fuel type and the air-to-fuel equivalence ratio, while the CO2 dilution was of minor importance.
PAPER REVISED: 2019-09-03
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2019-09-26
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2019, VOLUME 23, ISSUE Supplement 5, PAGES [S1511 - S1521]
  1. The European Commission, The Paris Agreement 2015, https,//
  2. Chomiak, J., Longwell, P., Sarofim, A., Combustion of low calorific value gases, problems and prospects, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 16, 2 (1989).
  3. Kexin, L., Sanderson, S., The influence of changes in fuel calorific value to combustion performance for Siemens SGT-300 dry low emission combustion system, Fuel 103 (2013).
  4. Graham E. Ballachey, Matthew R. Johnson, Prediction of blow off in a fully controllable low-swirl burner burning alternative fuels: Effects of burner geometry, swirl, and fuel composition, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 34 (2013).
  5. Syred, N., Beer, J. M., Combustion in Swirling Flows - A Review, Combustion and Flame 23, 2, pp., 143-201, (1974).
  6. Gupta. A., Lilley, D. and Syred, N., Swirl Flows, Abacus Press, (1984).
  7. Lefebvre, A.H., Gas Turbine Combustion, Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, (1998).
  8. Merzkirch, W., Flow Visualization, Academic Press, New York, 1974.
  9. Post, H., F., Walsum, T., Fluid flow visualization, Focus on Scientific Visualization, Hagen, H., Müller, H., Nielson, G., Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1993, pp. 1- 40, (ISBN 3-540-54940-4)
  10. Gaydon, A., Wofhard, H., Flames, their structure, radiation and temperature, Chapman and Hall, London (1960).
  11. Jensen, J., B., Luminescence techniques instrumentation and methods, Radiation Measurements Vol. 27, No. 5/6, pp. 749-768 (1997).
  12. Bheemul, H., Lu, G., Yan, Y., Three-dimensional visualization and quantitative characterization of gaseous flames, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13 1643-1650 PII: S0957-0233(02)33912-2 (2002).
  13. Hardalupas, Y. and Orain, M., Local measurements of the time-dependent heat release rate and equivalence ratio using chemiluminescence emission from a flame, Combustion and Flame 139, 3, pp.188-207, (2004).
  14. Guethe, F., Guyot, D., Singla, D., Noiray, D, · Schuermans, B., Chemiluminescence as diagnostic tool in the development of gas turbines, Appl Phys B (2012) 107:619-636 DOI 10.1007/s00340-012-4984-y.
  15. Orain, M. and Hardalupas, Y., Effect of fuel type on equivalence ratio measurements using chemiluminescence in premixed flames, Comptes Rendus Mecanique 338, 5, pp. 241-254, (2010).
  16. Markandey, T., Krishnan, S., Srinivasan, K., Yueh, F., Singh, S., Chemiluminescence-based multivariate sensing of local equivalence ratios in premixed atmospheric methane-air flames, Fuel, Volume 93, March, Pages 684-691 (2012).
  17. Simona, S., Merola, L., Marchitto, L., Tornatore , C., Valentino, G., Chemiluminescence analysis of the effect of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the spray combustion process in an experimental common rail diesel engine, Thermal Science Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 1943-1957 (2015).
  18. Viktor, J., Krisztian, S., Flame emission spectroscopy measurement of a steam blast and air blast burner, Thermal Science, Vol. 21, 2, pp. 1021-1030, (2017).
  19. Guiberti, T., Durox, D. Schuller, T., Flame chemiluminescence from CO2 - and N2 -diluted laminar CH4 /air premixed flames. Combustion and Flame, 181, pp. 110-122, (2017).
  20. Marsh, R., et al., Premixed methane oxy-combustion in nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres, measurement of operating limits, flame location and emissions. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 36, 3, pp. 3949-3958 (2017).
  21. Cosic, B., Experimental Photometric Research of Laminar Premixed Flame, (in Serbian), Ph. D. thesis, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, (2013).
  22. Ballachey, G., Johnson, M., Prediction of blow off in a fully controllable low swirl burning alternative fuels - Effects of burner geometry, swirl, and fuel composition, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 34, pp. 3193-3201 (2013).
  23. Littlejohn. D., Cheng, R., K., Fuel effects on a low swirl injector for lean premixed gas turbines, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31, pp. 3155-3162, (2007).
  24. Khallil, A., Gupta, A., Swirling distributed combustion foe clean conversion in gas turbine applications, Applied Energy, 88, pp3685-3693 (2011).
  25. Shi, B., Hu, J., Ishizuka, S., Carbon dioxide diluted methane/oxygen combustion in a rapidly mixed tubular flame burner, Combustion and Flame, 162, pp. 420-430, (2015).
  26. Lafay, Y., Cabot, G., Boukhalfa, A., Experimental study of biogas combustion using a gas turbine configuration, 13th, Symposium on Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, June (2006).
  27. Adzic, M., et al., Effect of a Microturbine Combustor Type on Emissions at Lean-Premixed Conditions. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 26, 5, pp. 1135-1143, (2010).
  28. Adzic, M., Carvalho, I., Heitor, M., Error analysis and calibration procedure when using an ICCD camera for the study of spray formation, Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing, Vol. 4, No. (1997).

© 2020 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence