International Scientific Journal


The comprehensive exergy characteristics of thirty two rice husk samples including exergy values (moisture related, S related, ash related, and LHV related) and exergy percentages (moisture related, S related, ash related, and LHV related) were investigated in this study. The results show that the moisture related exergy, S related exergy, ash related exergy, and LHV related exergy are in the ranges of 0-327.93, 0-67.78, 17.88-131.97, and 10577.05-19297.54 KJ/kg, respectively, for the rice husks. The exergy values of rice husks are in the range of 10918.01-19445.76 KJ/kg, and they are mainly determined by the LHV related exergy (96.81-99.70%), followed by moisture related exergy (0-2.66%), ash related exergy (0.11-0.78%), and S related exergy (0-0.43%).
PAPER REVISED: 2017-09-12
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2017-09-13
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE Supplement 2, PAGES [S429 - S437]
  1. FAO, 2017,
  2. Zhang, Y., et al., Physical properties of rice residues as affected by variety and climatic and cultivation conditions in three continents, Am. J. Appl. Sci., 9 (2012), pp. 1757-1768.
  3. Zhang, Y., et al., Comprehensive investigation into the exergy values of six rice husks, Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 6 (2013), pp. 216-225.
  4. Wall, G., Exergy-a useful concept (3rd ed), Physical Resource Theory Group, Göteborg, 1986.
  5. Srinivas, T., et al., Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model and Exergy Analysis of a Biomass Gasifier, J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131 (2009), pp. 031801.
  6. Zhang, Y., et al., Thermodynamic evaluation of biomass gasification with air in autothermal gasifiers, Thermochim Acta, 519 (2011), pp. 65-71.
  7. Zhang, Y., et al., Energy and exergy analyses of syngas produced from rice husk gasification in an entrained flow reactor, J. Clean. Prod., 95 (2015), pp. 273-280.
  8. Zhang, Y., et al., An expeditious methodology for estimating the exergy of woody biomass by means of heating values, Fuel, 159 (2015), pp. 712-719.
  9. Zhang, Y., et al., Determination of the exergy of four wheat straws, Am. J. Biochem. Biotech., 9 (2013), pp. 338-347.
  10. Zhang, Y., et al., Influence of physical and thermochemical properties on the exergy of cereal straws, J. Fund. Renew. Energy Appl., 4 (2014), pp. 1-8.
  11. Zhang, Y., et al., Exergy of oat straw, Energy Source Part A, 38 (2016), pp. 1574-1581.
  12. Zhang, Y., et al., Exergy Characteristics of Woody Biomass, Energy Source Part A, 38 (2016), pp. 2438-2446.
  13. Zhang, Y., et al., Two equations for estimating the exergy of woody biomass based on the exergy values of ash contents, Energy, 106 (2016), pp. 400-407.
  14. Zhang, Y., et al., Is there a general relationship between the exergy and HHV for rice residues? Renew. Energy, 117 (2018), pp. 37-45.
  15. Szargut, J., et al., Exergy analysis of thermal, chemical, and metallurgical processes, Edwards Brothers, Ann Arbor, 1988.
  16. Moran, M. J., et al., Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics (7th ed), John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2011.
  17. Song, G., et al., A unified correlation for estimating specific chemical exergy of solid and liquid fuels, Energy, 40 (2012), pp. 164-173.
  18. Channiwala, S.A., Parikh, P.P., A unified correlation for estimating HHV of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, Fuel, 81 (2002), pp. 1051-1063.
  19. Nilsson, D., Energy, exergy and emergy analysis of using straw as fuel in district heating plants, Biomass Bioenergy, 13 (1997), pp. 63-73.
  20. Zhang, Y., et al., Exergy analysis of biomass utilization via steam gasification and partial oxidation, Thermochim Acta, 538 (2012), pp. 21-28.

© 2020 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence