THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF THE HOTSPOTS IN 3-D INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

ABSTRACT
Vertical integration for microelectronics possesses significant challenges due to its fast dissipation of heat generated in multiple device planes. This paper focuses on thermal management of a 3-D integrated circuit, and micro-channel cooling is adopted to deal with the 3-D integrated circuitthermal problems. In addition, thermal through-silicon vias are also used to improve the capacity of heat trans-mission. It is found that combination of microchannel cooling and thermal through-silicon vias can remarkably alleviate the hotspots. The results presented in this paper are expected to aid in the development of thermal design guidelines for 3-D integrated circuits.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2017-02-20
PAPER REVISED: 2017-10-11
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2017-12-11
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2018-09-09
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI1804685W
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE 4, PAGES [1685 - 1690]
REFERENCES
  1. Feng, Z., Li, P., Fast Thermal Analysis on GPU for 3D ICs with Integrated Microchannel Cooling, IEEE T VLSI SYST, 21 (2013), 4, pp. 1526-1539
  2. Wang, K. J., et al., An Analytical Thermal Model for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits with Inte-grated Microchannel Cooling, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), 4, pp. 1601-1606
  3. Yan, H. X., et al., Thermal Aware Placement in 3D ICs Using Quadratic Uniformity Modeling Ap-proach, The VLSI Journal, 42 (2009), 2, pp. 175-180
  4. Wang, K. J., et al., An Analytical Model for Steady-State and Transient Temperature Fields in 3-D Inte-grated Circuits, IEEE Transactions on Components Packaging & Manufacturing Technology, 6 (2016), 7, pp. 1028-1041
  5. Liu, X. X., et al., Parallel Thermal Analysis of 3-D Integrated Circuits with Liquid Cooling on CPU-GPU Platforms, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 23 (2015), 3, pp. 575-579
  6. Dang, B., et al., Integrated Microfluidic Cooling and Interconnects for 2D and 3D Chips, IEEE Transac-tions on Advanced Packaging, 33 (2010), 1, pp. 79-87
  7. Kim, Y. J., et al., Thermal Characterization of Interlayer Microfluidic Cooling of Three-Dimensional In-tegrated Circuits with Nonuniform Heat Flux, Journal of Heat Transfer, 132 (2010), 4, pp. 1009-1017
  8. Li, P., et al., IC Thermal Simulation and Modeling via Efficient Multigrid-Based Approaches, IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 25 (2006), 9, pp. 1763-1776
  9. Iverson, B. D, Garimella, S. V., Recent Advances in Microscale Pumping Technologies: A Review and Evaluation, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 5 (2008), 2, pp. 145-174
  10. Wang, K. J., Pan, Z. L., Integrated Microchannel Cooling in a Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit: A Thermal Management, Thermal Science, 20 (2016), 3, pp. 899-902
  11. Shi, B., et al., Co-Design of Micro-Fluidic Heat Sink and Thermal through-Silicon-Vias for Cooling of Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit, IET Circuits Device & Systems, 7 (2013), 5, pp. 223-231
  12. Yoon, J. K., et al., Thermal Characterization of Interlayer Microfluidic Cooling of Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits with Nonuniform Heat Flux, Journal of Heat Transfer, 132 (2010), 4, pp. 041009-041018
  13. Kearney, D., et al., A Liquid Cooling Solution for Temperature Redistribution in 3D IC Architectures, Microelectronics Journal, 43 (2011), 9, pp. 602-610
  14. Kandlikar, S. G., Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Inte-grated Circuits, Journal of Electronic Packaging, 136 (2014), 2, pp. 456-463
  15. Zhang, J. R., et al., Experimental and Numerical Study of Transient Electronic Chip Cooling by Liquid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sinks, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A (Applications), 65 (2014), 7, pp. 627-643
  16. Sridhar, A., et al., 3D-ICE: A Compact Thermal Model for Early-Stage Design of Liquid-Cooled ICs, IEEE Transactions on Computers, 63 (2014), 10, pp. 2576-258
  17. Shi, B., Srivastava, A., Optimized Micro-Channel Design for Stacked 3-D-ICs. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 33 (2014), 1, pp. 90-100
  18. Lu, T. J., et al., Multiphysics Simulation of 3-D ICs with Integrated Microchannel Cooling, IEEE Trans-actions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 6 (2016), 11, pp. 1620-1629
  19. Brunschwiler, T., et al., Benchmarking Study on the Thermal Management Landscape for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits: from Back-Side to Volumetric Heat Removal, Journal of Electronic Packaging, 138 (2016), 1, pp. 010911-010921
  20. Kearney, D., et al., A Numerical Hydrodynamic and Thermal Characterization of an Inter-Strata Liquid Cooling Solution for 3D ICs, Microsystem Technologies-Micro-and Nanosystems-Information Storage and Processing Systems, 18 (2012), 2, pp. 225-235
  21. Zhuo, F., et al., Parallel On-Chip Power Distribution Network Analysis on Multi-Core-Multi-GPU Plat-forms, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 19 (2011), 10, pp. 1823-1836
  22. Sridhar, A., et al., 3D-ICE: A Compact Thermal Model for Early-Stage Design of Liquid-Cooled ICs, IEEE Transactions on Computers, 63 (2014), 10, pp. 2576-2589

© 2018 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence