THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

OPTIMIZATION OF A POLYGENERATION SYSTEM FOR ENERGY DEMANDS OF A LIVESTOCK FARM

ABSTRACT
A polygeneration system is an energy system capable of providing multiple utility outputs to meet local demands by application of process integration. This paper addresses the problem of pinpointing the optimal polygeneration energy supply system for the local energy demands of a livestock farm in terms of optimal system configuration and optimal system capacity. The optimization problem is presented and solved for a case study of a pig farm in the paper. Energy demands of the farm, as well as the super-structure of the polygeneration system were modelled using TRNSYS software. Based on the locally available resources, the following polygeneration modules were chosen for the case study analysis: a biogas fired in-ternal combustion engine co-generation module, a gas boiler, a chiller, a ground water source heat pump, solar thermal collectors, photovoltaic collectors, and heat and cold storage. Capacities of the polygeneration modules were used as op-timization variables for the TRNSYS-GenOpt optimization, whereas net present value, system primary energy consumption, and CO2 emissions were used as goal functions for optimization. A hybrid system composed of biogas fired internal combustion engine based co-generation system, adsorption chiller solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors, and heat storage is found to be the best option. Optimal heating capacity of the biogas co-generation and adsorption units was found equal to the design loads, whereas the optimal surface of the solar thermal array is equal to the south office roof area, and the optimal surface of the PV array cor-responds to the south facing animal housing building rooftop area.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2016-04-11
PAPER REVISED: 2016-05-25
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2016-05-31
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2016-12-25
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI16S5285M
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2016, VOLUME 20, ISSUE Supplement 5, PAGES [S1285 - S1300]
REFERENCES
  1. Rong, A., Lahdelma, R., Role of Polygeneration in Sustainable Energy System Development Challenges and Opportunities from Optimization Viewpoints, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 53 (2016), Jan., pp. 363-372
  2. Jana, K., De, S., Sustainable Polygeneration Design and Assessment through Combined Thermody-namic, Economic and Environmental Analysis, Energy, 91 (2015), Nov., pp. 540-555
  3. Khan, E. U., Martin, A. R., Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Polygeneration System with Membrane Distillation for Rural Households in Bangladesh, Energy, 93 part I (2015), Dec., pp. 1116-1127
  4. Adams, T. A., Ghouse, J. H., Polygeneration of Fuels and Chemicals, Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 10 (2015), Nov., pp. 87-93
  5. Hawkes, M. L. A., Impacts of Temporal Precision in Optimisation Modelling of Micro-Combined Heat and Power, Energy, 30 (2005), 10, pp. 1759-1779
  6. Mohan, G., et al., A Novel Solar Thermal Polygeneration System for Sustainable Production of Cooling, Clean Water and Domestic Hot Water in UAE, Applied Energy 167 (2015), 1, pp. 173-188
  7. Bai, Z., et al., A Polygeneration System for the Methanol Production and the Power Generation with the Solar-Biomass Thermal Gasification, Energy Conversion and Management, 102 (2015), Sept., pp. 190-201
  8. Jana, K., De, S., Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Polygeneration Using Agricultural Residue - A Case Study for an Indian District, Bioresource Technology, 181 (2015), Apr., pp. 163-173
  9. Jana, K., De, S., Polygeneration Using Agricultural Waste: Thermodynamic and Economic Feasibility Study, Renewable Energy, 74 (2015), Feb., pp. 648-660
  10. Lythcke-Jorgensen, C., Haglind, F., Design Optimization of a Polygeneration Plant Producing Power, Heat, and Lignocellulosic Ethanol, Energy Conversion and Management, 91 (2015), Feb., pp. 353-366
  11. Tan, R. R., et al., P-Graph Approach to Optimal Operational Adjustment in Polygeneration Plants under Conditions of Process Inoperability, Applied Energy, 135 (2014), Dec., pp. 402-406
  12. Serra, L. M., et al., Polygeneration and Efficient Use of Natural Resources, Energy, 34 (2009), 5, pp. 575-586
  13. Piacentino, A., et al., Promotion of Polygeneration for Buildings Applications through Sector - and User-Oriented "High Efficiency CHP" Eligibility Criteria, Applied Thermal Engineering, 71 (2014), 2, pp. 882-894
  14. Zhang, J., et al., A Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming Approach to the Optimal Design of Heat Network in a Polygeneration Energy System, Applied Energy, 49 (2008), Feb., pp. 146-154
  15. Piacentino, A., Cardona, F., EABOT - Energetic Analysis as a Basis for Robust Optimization of Trigeneration Systems by Linear Programming, Energy Conversion and Management, 49 (2008), 11, pp. 3006-3016
  16. Stojiljkovic, M., et al., Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization of Trigeneration Plants Based on Metaheuristics, Energies, 7 (2014), 12, pp. 8554-8581
  17. Glavan, I., Prelec, Z., The Analysis of Trigeneration Energy Systems and Selection of the best Option Based on Criteria of GHG Emission, Cost and Efficiency, Engineering Review, 32 (2012), 3, pp. 131-139
  18. Arosio, S., et al., A Model for Micro-Trigeneration Systems Based on Linear Optimization and the Italian Tariff Policy, Applied Thermal Engineering, 31 (2011), 14-15, pp. 2292-2300
  19. Rong, A., Lahdelma, R., An Efficient Linear Programming Model and Optimization Algorithm for Trigeneration, Applied Energy, 82 (2005), 1, pp. 40-63
  20. Liu, P., et al., A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach to Polygeneration Energy Systems Design, Process Systems Engineering, 56 (2009), 5, pp 1218-1234
  21. Reini, M., et al., Optimization of a Distributed Trigeneration System with Heating Micro-Grids for an Industrial Area, Proceedings, 2nd European Conference on Polygeneration, 2011, Tarragona, Spain, 2011
  22. Lozano, M., et al., Cost Optimization of the Design of CHCP (Combined Heat, Cooling, and Power) Systems under Legal Constraints, Energy, 35 (2010), 2, pp. 794-805
  23. Carvalho, M., et al., Multicriteria Synthesis of Trigeneration Systems Considering Economic and Environmental Aspects, Applied Energy, 91 (2012), 1, pp. 245-254
  24. Lozano, M., et al., Operational Strategy and Marginal Costs in Simple Trigeneration Systems, Energy, 34 (2009), 11, pp. 2001-2008
  25. Carvalho, M., et al., Optimal Synthesis of Trigeneration Systems Subject to Environmental Constraints, Energy, 36 (2011), 6, pp. 3779-3790
  26. Buoro, D., et al., Optimization of Distributed Trigeneration Systems Integrated with Heating and Cooling Micro-Grids, Distributed Generation and Alternative Energy Journal, 26 (2011), 2, pp. 7-33
  27. Lozano, M., et al., Structure Optimization of Energy Supply Systems in Tertiary Sector Buildings, Energy and Buildings, 41 (2009), 10, pp. 1063-1075
  28. Li, H., et al., Thermal-Economic Optimization of a Distributed Multi-Generation Energy System - A Case Study of Beijing, Applied Thermal Engineering, 26 (2006), 7, pp. 709-719
  29. Liu, P., et al., Modeling and Optimization of Polygeneration Energy Systems, Catalysis Today, 127 (2007), 1-4, pp. 347-359
  30. Ghaebi, H., et al., Exergoeconomic Optimization of a Trigeneration System for Heating, Cooling, and Power Production Purpose Based on TRR Method and Using Evolutionary Algorithm, Applied Thermal Engineering, 36 (2012), Apr., pp. 113-125
  31. Rentizelas, A., et al., An Optimization Model for Multi-Biomass Tri-Generation Energy Supply, Biomass and Bioenergy, 33 (2009), 2, pp. 223-233
  32. Nosrat, A., et al., Improved Performance of Hybrid Photovoltaic-Trigeneration Systems over Photovoltaic-Cogen Systems Including Effects of Battery Storage, Energy, 49 (2013), Jan., pp. 366-374
  33. Kavvadias, K. C., Maroulis, Z. B., Multi-Objective Optimization of a Trigeneration Plant, Energy Policy, 38 (2010), 2, pp. 945-954
  34. Wang, J., et al., Optimization Design of BCHP System to Maximize to Save Energy and Reduce Environmental Impact, Energy, 49 (2013), 8, pp. 3388-3398
  35. Tora, E. A., El-Halwagi, M. M., Integrated Conceptual Design of Solar-Assisted Trigeneration Systems, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 35 (2011), 9, pp. 1807-1814
  36. Tora, E. A., Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat, and Fossil Fuel, Ph. D. thesis, Texas A&M University, Tamu, Tex., USA, 2010
  37. Lai, S. M., Hui, C. W., Integration of Trigeneration System and Thermal Storage under Demand Uncertainties, Applied Energy, 87 (2010), 9, pp. 2868-2880
  38. Mago, P. J., Chamra, L. M., Analysis and Optimization of CCHP Systems Based on Energy, Economical, and Environmental Considerations, Energy and Buildings, 41 (2009), 10, pp. 1099-1106
  39. Mančić, M., et al., Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of the Thermal Performance of a Solar Heated Indoor Swimming Pool, Thermal Science, 18 (2014), 3, pp. 999-101
  40. Jovanović, G., et al., A Model of a Serbian Energy Efficient House for Decentralized Electricity Production, Journal of Renewable Sustainable Energy, 5 (2013), ID 041810
  41. Mančić, M., et al., Revıew of Software for Sımulatıon and Optımızatıon of Energy Systems, Proceedings, 15th Symposium on Thermal Engineering in Serbia, Simterm 2011, Soko Banja, Serbia, 2011
  42. Sevilgen, S. H., Sancar, O., Economical Analysis of Trigeneration System, International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 6 (2011), 5, pp. 1068-1073
  43. Wang, J-J., et al., Optimization of Capacity and Operation for CCHP System by Genetic Algorithm, Applied Energy, 87 (2010), 4, pp. 1325-1335
  44. Vallianou, V. A., Frangopoulos, C. A., Dynamic Operation Optimization of a Trigeneration System, International Journal of Thermodynamics (IJoT), 15 (2012), 4, pp. 239-247
  45. Al-Sulaiman, F. A., et al., Thermoeconomic Optimization of Three Trigeneration Systems Using Organic Rankine Cycles: Part II - Applications, Energy Conversion and Management, 69 (2013), May, pp. 209-216
  46. Cardona, E., et al., Matching Economical, Energetic and Environmental Benefits: An Analysis for Hybrid CHCP-Heat Pump Systems, Energy Conversion and Management, 47 (2006), 20, pp. 3530-3542
  47. Aleksić, S., et al., Livestock Production - Present Situation and Future Development Directions in Republic if Serbia, Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 25 (2009), 5-6, pp. 267-276
  48. Njegovan Z., Bošković, O., Agriculture of Serbia and Montenegro, Agora Without Frontiers, 12 (2006), 2, pp. 110-145
  49. Meul, M., et al., Energy Use Efficiency of Specialised Dairy, Arable and Pig Farms in Flanders, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 119 (2007), 1-2, pp. 135-144
  50. Nguyen, T. L., et al., Fossil Energy and GHG Saving Potentials of Pig Farming in the EU, Energy Policy, 38 (2010), 5, pp. 2561-2571
  51. Halberg, N., Indicators of Resource Use and Environmental Impact for Use in a Decision Aid for Danish Livestock Farmers, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 76 (1999), 1, pp. 17-30
  52. Dalgaard, T., et al., A Model for Fossil Energy Use in Danish Agriculture Used to Compare Organic and Conventional Farming, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 87 (2001), 1, pp. 51-65
  53. Roy, P., et al., A Review of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on Some Food Products, Journal of Food Engineering, 90 (2009), 1, pp. 1-10
  54. Ravena, R. P. J. M., Gregersen., K. H., Biogas Plants in Denmark: Successes and Setbacks, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11 (2007), 1, pp. 116-132
  55. Weiland, P., Biogas Production: Current State and Perspectives, Applied Microbiolgy Biotechnology, 85 (2010), 4, pp. 849-860
  56. Svensson, L. M., et al., Biogas Production from Crop Residues on a Farm-Scale Level: is it Economically Feasible under Conditions in Sweden? Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 28 (2005), 2, pp. 137-142
  57. Prasertsana, S., Sajjakulnukitb, B., Biomass and Biogas Energy in Thailand: Potential, Opportunity and Barriers, Renewable Energy, 31 (2006), 5, pp. 599-610
  58. Živković, D., et al., Biomass in Serbia - Resources, Barriers and Possible Solutions, Biomass in Serbia - Resources, Barriers and Possible Solutions IEEP 2012, Zrenjanin, Serbia, 2012
  59. Munster, M., Lund, H., Comparing Waste-to-Energy Technologies by Applying Energy System Analysis, Waste Management, 30 (2010), 7, pp. 1251-1263
  60. Pipatmanomai, S., et al., Economic Assessment of Biogas-to-Electricity Generation System with H2S Removal by Activated Carbon in Small Pig Farm, Applied Energy, 86 (2009), 5, pp. 669-674
  61. Mančić, M., et al., Techno-Economic Optimization of Energy Supply of a Livestock Farm, Facta Universitatis, Series: Working and Living Environmental Protection, 12 (2015), 2, pp. 199-216
  62. Mančić, M., et al., Cost Optimal Energy Supply of a Livestock Farm, Proceedings, the 17th Symposium on Thermal Science and Engineering of Serbia SIMTERM 2015, Sokobanja, Serbia, 2015
  63. Mančić, M., et al., Techno-Economic Optimization of a Biogas Cogeneration System, Proceedings, 3rd International Conference Mechanical Engineering in XXI Century, Nis, Serbia, 2015
  64. Živković, D., et al., Application of Biogas Based Cogeneration to Improve Energy Efficiency and Competitiveness of Agricultural Farms, Proceedings, the 17th Symposium on Thermal Science and Engineering of Serbia SIMTERM 2015, Sokobanja, Serbia, 2015
  65. Cvetković, S., et al., Electricity Production from Biogas in Serbia - Assessment of Emissions Reduction, Thermal Science, (2015), no. OnLine-First, doi:10.2298/TSCI150812189C, pp. 189-189
  66. ***, Province Secretariat for Energy and Mineral Resources, Biogas Plant - Instructions for Performing a Feasibility Study with an Example of a Single Biogas Facility, AP Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia, 2012 (in Serbian language)
  67. Živković, D., et al., Energetic and Ecologic Aspects of Application of Biogas Based Cogeneration, Proceedings, 3rd International Conference Mechanical Engineering in XXI Century, Nis, Serbia, 2015
  68. ***, European Commission, Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for the Intensive Rearing of Poultry and Pigs, 2013
  69. ***, Meteonorm, "Global Meteorological Database Handbook version 7, The Meteorological Reference for Solar Energy Applications, Building Desing, Heating & Cooling Systems, Education Renewable Energy System Design, Agriculture and Forestry, Environmental Research," Meteonorm, 2015
  70. ***, Regulative on Terms and Procedure of Acquiring the Status of Beneficiary Electricity Producer, Ar-ticle 56, Law on Energetics, Official gazette of the Republic of Serbia, 57/11, 80/11 - corrected 93/12 and 124/12 (in Serbian language)
  71. ***, Regulative on Subsidies for Beneficiary Producers of Electrical Energy, Article 59. Law on Ener-getics, Official gazette of the Republic of Serbia, 57/11, 80/11 - corrected 93/12 and 124/12 (in Serbian language)
  72. Onovwiona, H. I., et al., Modeling of Internal Combustion Engine Based Cogeneration Systems for Residential Applications, Applied Thermal Engineering, 27 (2007), 5-6, pp. 848-861
  73. Fu, L., et al., Laboratory Research on Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems, Energy Conversion and Management, 50 (2009), 4, pp. 977-982
  74. Pastakkaya, B., et al., Experimental Analysis of a Solar Absorption System with Interior Energy Storage, Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 23 (2012), 2, pp. 39-49
  75. Thomas, S., Andre, P., Numerical Simulation and Performance Assessment of an Absorption Solar Air-Conditioning System Coupled with an Office Building, Building Simulation, 5 (2012), 3, pp. 243-255
  76. Hassan, H. Z., Performance Evaluation of a Continuous Operation Adsorption Chiller Powered by Solar Energy Using Silica Gel and Water as the Working Pair, Energies, 7 (2014), Oct., pp. 6382-6400
  77. Banister, C. J., et al., Validation of a Single Tank, Multi-Mode Solar-Assisted Heat Pump TRNSYS Model, Energy Procedia, 48 (2014), pp. 499-504
  78. Aste, N., et al., Cost Optimal Analysis of Heat Pump Technology Adoption in Residential Reference Buildings, Renewable Energy, 60 (2013), Dec., pp. 615-624
  79. Hepbasli, A., Kalinc, Y., A Review of Heat Pump Water Heating Systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (2009), 6-7, pp. 1211-1229
  80. King, L., et al., Photovoltaic Array Performance Model, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 2003, N. Mex., USA, 87185-0752
  81. Skoplaki, E., Palyvos, J. A., Operating Temperature of Photovoltaic Modules: A Survey of Pertinent Correlations, Renewable Energy, 34 (2009), 1, pp. 23-29
  82. ***, Viessmann, Solar Thermal Systems Technical Guide, Viessmann Werke, D-35107 Allendorf, Germany, 2009
  83. ***, Wesper, Technical Brochure TM VLH-W.3GB, Wesper S. A. S., 17800 Pons, France, 2005
  84. Bejan, A., et al., Thermal Design and Optimization, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N. Y., USA, 1995
  85. Karamarkovic, V., et al., Handbook for Preparing Energy Efficiency Projects in Municipalities, Ministry for Mining and Energy of Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, 2008 (in Serbian language)
  86. Sandberg, P., Soderstrom, M., Industrial Energy Efficiency: the Need for Investment Decision Support from a Manager Perspective, Energy Policy, 31 (2003), 15, pp. 1623-1634
  87. Brealey, R. A., et al., Principles of Corporate Finance, 10th edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, N. Y., USA, 2011
  88. ***, Asian Development Bank, Cost-Benefit Analysis for Development, A practical Guide, Mandalu-yong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2013
  89. ***, EU Commision, Gude to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects, Structural Fund-ERDF, Cohesion Fund and ISPA, Brussels, Belgium, 1997
  90. Short, W., et al., A Manual for the Economic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies, NREL, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Cal., USA, 1995
  91. Petrović, A., et al., Estimation of Commodities in Planning and Construction, ETA, Belgrade, 2009
  92. Yee, B. T., et al., Equipment and Fixtures Index, Percent Good and Valuation Factors, Assessors' Handbook, Marshall & Swift/Boeckh, LLC, and the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Cal., USA, 2014
  93. ***, Ministry of Environment, Mining and Space Planning of the Republic of Serbia, Rulebook on Energetic Certification of Buildings, Official Gazzete of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Vol. 61/11, 2009 (in Serbian language)
  94. Witter, M., GenOpt, Generic Optimization Program, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkley, Cal., USA, 2011

© 2020 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence