THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Comparison of wooden and conventional houses sustainability: Increasing application of modified wood in R. of Macedonia

ABSTRACT
The residential sector in Republic of Macedonia, situated in South-East Europe, is responsible for the consumption of significant amounts of resources and for the production of large amount of emissions and waste. The increased application of wood products can substantially improve these conditions and contribute towards increasing the sustainability in the construction industry and the creation of sustainable homes. The contribution of this paper is the simulation of four different alternatives of residential buildings in the Republic of Macedonia, evaluated in terms of energy performance and Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the "cradle to gate" phase. The results of this study revealed that by replacing conventional concrete and masonry constructions with wooden constructions in low-rise family houses, the carbon emissions can be reduced up to 145%. The contribution of this paper is the simulation and analysis of the energy performance by using Building Performance Simulation (BPS) tools and Life-Cycle Assessment of a residential building and its optimization through several models. The results give significant insight on the influence that the different construction materials have on the environment and buildings performance. Also, the research enables stimulation of the construction industry in utilizing wooden structures and delivering legislation that could increase their use. These actions would provide means for the development of sustainable buildings, neighborhoods and sustainable development of the Republic of Macedonia.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2018-07-05
PAPER REVISED: 2018-09-27
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-09-29
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2018-10-06
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI180705292P
REFERENCES
  1. David, A., et al., Handbook of Sustainable Building: An Environmental Preference Method for Selection of Materials for Use in Construction. Earthscan Publications Ltd.; Revised edition (January 1996), 1996
  2. Mumovic, D. and Santamouris, M., A Handbook of Sustainable Building Design and Engineering: An Integrated Approach to Energy, Health and Operational Performance, First edition. London ; Sterling, VA: Routledge, 2009
  3. Asif, M., et al., "Life cycle assessment: A case study of a dwelling home in Scotland," Building and Environment, 42 (2007), 3, pp. 1391-1394
  4. Dimkov, G., et al., "The cantilever in the national Macedonian architecture, aspects of the function, materials and their application," Technics Technologies Education Management, 10 (2015), 2, pp. 177-190
  5. Kitek, M. and Sandberg, D., "Comparison of timber-house technologies and initiatives supporting use of timber in Slovenia and in Sweden - the state of the art," iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 10 (2017), 6, pp. 930
  6. Ivanović-Šekularac, J., et al., "Application of wood as an element of façade cladding in construction and reconstruction of architectural objects to improve their energy efficiency," Energy and Buildings, 115 (2016), pp. 85-93
  7. Nexant, Inc., ICEM-MANU, Timel proekten inzenering, and Organizacija na potrosuvachi na RM, "Strategy for energy efficiency in R. of Macedonia (in Macedonian)," Skopje, 2010.
  8. "Strategy for energy efficiency improvement in R. of Macedonia untill 2020 (in Macedonian)," Ministry of Economics, Skopje, 2010.
  9. Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, vol. OJ L. 2010.
  10. Sartori, I., et al., "Net zero energy buildings: A consistent definition framework," Energy and Buildings, 48 (2012), pp. 220-232
  11. Petrovski, A., et al., "Sustainable design for improvement of healthy built environment," in Proceedings of 2nd International Academic Conference on Places and Technologies, Nova Gorica, 2015, pp. 52-58
  12. Zileska - Pancovska, et al., "Predicting Sustainability Assessment at Early Facilities Design Phase," Facilities, 35 (2017), 7/8, pp. 388-404
  13. Ivanović-Šekularac, J., et al., "Restoration and conversion to re-use of historic buildings incorporating increased energy efficiency: A Case Study - the Haybarn Complex, Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos," Thermal Science, 20 (2016), 4, pp. 1363-1376
  14. "MakStat database," State Statistical office, 2018.
  15. Hill, C. A. S., Wood Modification: Chemical, Thermal and Other Processes. John Wiley & Sons, 2006
  16. Sandberg, D., et al., "Wood modification technologies - a review," iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 10 (2017), 6, pp. 895-908
  17. Morozovs, A. and Buksans, E., "Fire performance characteristics of acetylated ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) wood," Wood Materials Science and Engineering, 4 (2009), 1/2, pp. 76-79
  18. "Accsys," 2018.
  19. Gérardin, P., "New alternatives for wood preservation based on thermal and chemical modification of wood— a review," Annals of Forest Science, 73 (2016), 3, pp. 559-570
  20. "Chabot Space & Science Center | Kebony."
  21. Navi, P. and Sandberg, D., "Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Processing of Wood," in EPFL Press. Chapter 9.4 Commercial Heat treatment Processes, 2012, pp. 271-274
  22. Poncsak, S., et al., "Improvement of the heat treatment of Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) using ThermoWood technology," European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 69 (2011), 2, pp. 281-286
  23. Shi, J. L., et al., "Mechanical behaviour of Québec wood species heat-treated using ThermoWood process," Holz Roh Werkst, 65 (2007), 4, pp. 255-259
  24. "Thermowood," Lunawood, 2018
  25. Engelund, E. T., et al., "A critical discussion of the physics of wood-water interactions," Wood Sci Technol, 47 (2013), 1, pp. 141-161
  26. Kartal, S. N., et al., "Water absorption of boron-treated and heat-modified wood," Journal of Wood Science, 53 (2007), 5, pp. 454-457
  27. Metsä-Kortelainen, S., et al., "The water absorption of sapwood and heartwood of Scots pine and Norway spruce heat-treated at 170 °C, 190 °C, 210 °C and 230 °C," Holz Roh Werkst, 64 (2006), 3, pp. 192-197
  28. Hakkou, M., et al., "Investigation of wood wettability changes during heat treatment on the basis of chemical analysis," Polymer Degradation and Stability, 89 (2005), 1, pp. 1-5
  29. "mdc.Architectonica," 2018.
  30. Правилник за енергетски карактеристики на зградите. 2013
  31. "ÖKOBAUDAT."
  32. "EnergyPlus | EnergyPlus."
  33. Meteonorm, "Meteonorm: Irradiation data for every place on Earth."
  34. Filkoski, R., et al., "A model for techno-economic optimisation and environmental sustainability of the heating structure in an urban area," presented at the VI Regional Conference "Industrial Energy and Environmental Protection in Southeastern Europe, Zlatibor, Serbia, 2017
  35. Šúri, M., et al., "Potential of solar electricity generation in the European Union member states and candidate countries," Solar Energy, 81 (2007), 10, pp. 1295-1305
  36. Dinçer, F., "The analysis on photovoltaic electricity generation status, potential and policies of the leading countries in solar energy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (2011), 1, pp. 713-720
  37. Meral, M. E. and Dinçer, F., "A review of the factors affecting operation and efficiency of photovoltaic based electricity generation systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (2011), 5, pp. 2176-2184
  38. Varun, B., et al., "LCA of renewable energy for electricity generation systems—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (2009), 5, pp. 1067-1073
  39. "Samsung LPC250SM (250W) Solar Panel."
  40. Vucicevic, B., et al., "Experimental and numerical modelling of thermal performance of a residential building in Belgrade," Thermal Science, 13 (2009), 2, pp. 245-252
  41. Turanjanin, V. M., et al., "Different heating systems for single family house: Energy and economic analysis," Thermal Science, 20 (2016), 1, pp. 309-320