THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

SOME ENERGETIC AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF DIFFERENT CITY BUS DRIVE SYSTEMS

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the analysis and comparison of energy and environmental properties of various city bus systems: diesel and compressed natural gas internal combustion engines, trolleybus, and battery electric bus. It is based on experimental research on fuel and energy consumption of city buses with aforementioned propulsion systems carried out under similar driving conditions – on the same city bus lines in Belgrade and Novi Sad, and on evaluation of energy efficiency and CO2 emission of real electricity production in Serbia. In this way, “tank-to-wheel” and “well-to-wheel” energy consumption and CO2 emissions of considered bus driving systems have been evaluated and compared. The results show all complexity of the matter since benefits of application of different systems largely depends on bus exploitation conditions and even more of the conditions of electric energy production. The compressed natural gas internal combustion engine compared to the Diesel engine provides obviously benefit in harmful gas emissions. However, CO2 emissions are on a similar level, while energy efficiency is even less. Electric propulsion systems provide undoubtedly benefit in energy consumption, harmful gases and CO2 emissions if tank-to-wheel conditions are considered, but well-to-wheel characteristics strongly depend on the condition of electric energy production.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2017-10-27
PAPER REVISED: 2017-12-10
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2017-12-26
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2018-01-07
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI171027310T
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE 3, PAGES [1493 - 1504]
REFERENCES
  1. Stojan Petrović, Velimir Petrović, ACTUAL AND FUTURE EUROPEAN MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST EMISSIONS REGULATIONS, Mobility Vehicle Mechanics (MVM), Volume 40, Number 3, 2014, pp. 7-27, ISSN 1450 - 5304, UDC 621 + 629(05)*802.0, University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering, Kragujevac, 1974.
  2. Slobodan Mišanović, Zlatomir Živanović, Analysis of energy efficiency and costs of service of fully electric buses in Belgrade public transport, XXV JUMV International Automotive Conference "Science & Motor Vehicles 2015", Belgrade, 14-15 April 2015, Proceedings on CD, Paper NMV15AL04, pp. 285-294, ISBN 978-86-80941-36-7
  3. European Commission - How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) part 2-Guidebook, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010,www.eumayors.eu/IMG/pdf/seap_guidelines_en.pdf
  4. New Generation Transport, Sub Mode Options Investigation, Mott MacDonald, United Kingdom,2014.,www.persona.uk.com/LTVS/core_docs/C-1-16.pdf
  5. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions generated by Electric Vehicles, Comparison with fossil fuel vehicles, European Association for Battery Electric Vehicles, 2008, ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/strategies/consultations/doc/2009_03_27_future_of_transport/20090408_eabev_%28scientific_study%29.pdf
  6. The World Bank: Electric Power Transmission and Distribution Losses data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.LOSS.ZS
  7. Electric Distribution Company of Serbia (EPS), annual technical report for year 2015,www.eps.rs/Pages/FolderDocs.aspx?list=Tehnicki%20Izvestaji (in Serbian)
  8. Vladimir Jovanović, INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBILITY FOR ESTIMATION OF SULPHUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION FROM THERMAL POWER PLANTS IN SERBIA, Ph.D. Thesis University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade, 2012 (in Serbian)
  9. Zlatomir Živanović, Snežana Petković, Slobodan Mišanović, Apolonia Holo, Željko Šakota, Natural Gas Buses in Serbia Public Transport - Some Operational Experiences, FME Transactions, VOL. 43, No 2, 2015, pp. 89-98, doi:10.5937/fmet1502089Z, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade 2015.
  10. Louis Lambilliotte, How Green are Electric Cars?, Submitted as coursework for PH240, Stanford University, Fall 2014, large.stanford.edu/courses/2014/ph240/lambilliotte2/
  11. Johan Kristensson, New Study: Large CO2 Emissions from Batteries of Electric Cars, New Technology, Date; 12/06/17, www.thegwpf.com/new-study-large-co2-emissions-frombatteries-of-electric-cars/

© 2018 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence