## THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

### A NUMERICAL STUDY ON CONVECTION AROUND A SQUARE CYLINDER USING AL2O3-H2O NANOFLUID

**ABSTRACT**

In this paper, a numerical simulation has been performed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer around a square cylinder utilizing Al2O3-H2O nanofluid over low Reynolds numbers. Here, both Reynolds and Peclet numbers are varied within the range of 1 to 40and the volume fraction of nanoparticles (φ) is varied within the range of 0<φ<0.05. Two-dimensional and steady mass continuity, momentum and energy equations have been discretized using Finite Volume Method (FVM). SIMPLE algorithm has been applied for solving the pressure linked equations. The effect of volume fraction of nanoparticles on fluid flow and heat transfer were investigated numerically. It was found that at a given Reynolds number, the Nusselt number, drag coefficient, recirculation length, and pressure coefficient increases by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2012-12-24

PAPER REVISED: 2013-04-10

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2013-05-16

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2013-06-01

**THERMAL SCIENCE** YEAR

**2014**, VOLUME

**18**, ISSUE

**4**, PAGES [1305 - 1314]

- Das, S. K., Choi, S. U. S., Yu, W. H., Pradeep, T., Nanofluids: Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2008
- Lamura, A., Gompper, G., Ihle, T., Kroll, D. M., Multi-particle collision dynamics: Flow around a circular and a square cylinder, EPL (Euro physics Letters), 56 (2001), 3, pp. 319-325
- Zhou, L., Wang, B., Peng, X., Du, X., Yang, Y., On the Specific Heat Capacity of CuO Nanofluid, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2010 (2010)
- Peng, X. F., Yu, X. L., Yu, F. Q., Experimental study on the specific heat of nanofluids, Journal of Materials Science & Engineering, 25 (2007), 5, pp. 719-722
- Wong, K. V., Castillo, M. J., Heat Transfer Mechanisms and Clustering in Nanofluids, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2010 (2010)
- Ding, Y., Chen, H., Wang, L., Yang, C., He, Y., Yang, W., Lee, W. P., Zhang, L., Huo, R., Heat Transfer Intensification Using Nanofluids, KONA: Journal of Particle and Powder, 25 (2007), pp. 23-38
- Ellahi, R., Zeeshan, A., Vafai, K., Rahman, H., Series solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid and heat transfer in coaxial porous cylinder with slip conditions, J Nanoengineering and Nanosystems, 225 (2011), 3, pp. 123-132
- Ellahi, R., Raza, M, Vafai, K., Series solutions of non-Newtonian nanofluids with Reynolds' model and Vogel's model by means of the homotopy analysis method, Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 55 (2012), 7-8, pp. 1876-1891
- Ellahi, R., Aziz, S., Zeeshan, A., Non Newtonian nanofluid flow through a porous medium between two coaxial cylinders with heat transfer and variable viscosity, Journal of Porous Media, 16 (2013), 3, pp. 205-216
- Ellahi, R., The effects of MHD and temperature dependent viscosity on the flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid in a pipe: Analytical solutions, Applied Mathematical Modeling, 37 (2013), 3, pp. 1451-1467
- Dhiman, A. K., Chhabra, R. P., Eswaran, V., Flow and Heat Transfer Across a Confined Square Cylinder in the Steady Flow Regime: Effect of Peclet Number, International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 48 (2005), 21-22, pp. 4598-4614
- Chatterjee, D., Mondal, B., Effect of thermal buoyancy on vortex shedding behind a square cylinder in cross flow at low Reynolds numbers, International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 54 (2011), 21-22, pp. 5262-5274.
- Yoon, D., Yangl, K., Choi, C., Flow past a square cylinder with an angle of incidence, Physics of fluids, 22 (2010).
- Rahnama, M., Hashemian, S. M., Farhadi, M., Forced convection heat transfer from a rectangular cylinder: effect of aspect ratio, 16th international symposium on transport phenomena, Prague, Chec, 2005, pp. 1-5
- Mahmoodi, M., Mixed convection inside nanofluid filled rectangular enclosures with moving bottom wall, Thermal science, 15 (2011), 3, pp. 889-903
- Soltanipour, H., Choupani, P., Mirzaee, I., Numerical analysis of heat transfer enhancement with using ã-Al2O3-H2O nanofluid and longitudinal ribs in a curved duct, Thermal science,16 (2012), 2, pp. 469-480
- Valipour, M. S., Zare Ghadi, A., Numerical investigation of fluid flow and heat transfer around a solid circular cylinder utilizing nanofluid, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38 ( 2011), 9, pp. 1296-1304
- Etminan-Farooji, V., Ebrahimnia-Bajestan, E., Niazmand, H., Wongwises, S., Unconfined laminar nanofluid flow and heat transfer around a square cylinder, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (2012), 5-6, pp. 1475-1485
- Sarkar, S., Ganguly, S., Biswas, G., Mixed convective heat transfer of nanofluids past a circular cylinder in cross flow in unsteady regime, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (2012), 17-18, pp.4783-4799
- Izadi, M., Behzadmehr, A., Jalali-Vahida, D., Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection in an Annulus, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 48 (2009), 11, pp. 2119-2129
- Zhou, S.Q., Ni, R., Measurement of the Specific Heat Capacity of Water-Based Al2O3Nanofluid, Appl. Phys. Lett,92 (2008), pp. 093-123
- Masoumi, N., Sohrabi, N., Behzadmehr, A., A new model for calculating the effective viscosity of nanofluids, J. Applied Physic, 42 (2009), 9, pp. 1-6
- Chon, C. H., Kihm, K. D., Lee, S. P., Choi, S. U. S., Empirical Correlation Finding the Role of Temperature and Particle Size for Nanofluid (Al2O3) Thermal Conductivity Enhancement, J. Applied Physic, 87 (2005), 5, pp. 1-3
- Patankar, S. V., Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow, Hemisphere, New York, USA, 1980.
- Breuer, M., Bernsdorf, J., Zeiser, T., Durst, F., Accurate computations of the laminar flow past a square cylinder based on two different methods: lattice-Boltzmann and finite-volume, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 21 (2000), 2, pp. 186-196
- Sharma, A., Eswaran, V., Heat and fluid flow across a square cylinder in the two dimensional laminar flow regime, Numer. Heat Transfer A-Appl., 45 (2004), 3, pp. 247-269
- Kumar, P., Ganesan, R., A CFD study of turbulent convective heat transfer enhancement in circular pipe flow, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 68 (2012), pp. 457-464